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Remington Rar.d Inp. Cat. no. 1139 







REV. D r . F. X. HABERL 








London, Burns & Oates, 17, Portman St., Portman Sq.-R. Washburne, I8 a , Paternoster Row. 
Dublin, M. W. Gill & Son, 50, Upper Sackville St. 




ft is now fifteen years since the "Magister Choralis" 
first appeared in English dress. Since that time it 
has been translated into four other European languages; 
— French, Italian, Polish and Spanish, and the original 
German has reached its tenth edition. This may be fairly 
regarded as a world-wide proof of the need there was 
for such a Manual, and of how well it has answered that 
need. Other useful Manuals of Plain-Chant, dealing with 
its elementary characteristics and giving rules for prac- 
tice, have appeared from time to time, and have in many 
instances proved most valuable, but no one has yet ap- 
peared that treats the subject so exhaustively, from its 
several liturgical, musical, historical, archeological and 
practical standpoints, as this clear and comprehensive 
work of the Rev. D r . Haberl, and with its twenty-seven 
years of unchallenged superiority, it bids fair to remain 
without a rival. 

In undertaking this new English edition, I have been 
influenced by the statements made in the Author's Pre- 
face, as to the changes, alterations and additions made 
since the appearance of the fourth German edition, from 
which the first English translation was made. These al- 
terations have been so numerous, and in many instances 
of such a radical character, that I felt that a completely 
new work was placed before me, rather than the revision 
of an old one. I resolved therefore to keep strictly to 


the German text, and eliminate all that extraneous mat- 
ter which local considerations urged me to insert in the 
first edition. Some few of the more useful remarks, not 
found in the latest German version, have been retained, 
but in every instance where these occur, they are printed 
within square brackets, thus: | ], the better to distin- 
guish the original work of the author from the inter- 
polations of the translator, and thus allow the present 
version to be regarded as a strictly literal rendering of 
the ninth German edition. 

I have to thank in an especial manner the Rev. Pro- 
fessor Bewerunge of S* Patrick's College, Maynooth, who 
in the kindest manner volunteered to revise and correct 
the proof sheets as they passed through the Press, and 
made valuable suggestions and amendments. 

This "opus quidem nullius ingenii, multarum tarnen 
vigiliarum" (Guidetti) I now confidently commend to the 
conscientious students of Plain Chant, in the hope that 
it may still further promote the growing desire for a 
dignified and devotional rendering of the genuine music 
of the Church. 

^ Nicholas Donnelly 

Bishop of Canea. 

50. Rathgar Road. Dublin. 
June. 1892. 




^o express and indicate unity in Faith by unity in 
® Liturgy *) was the constant endeavour of the Supreme 
Head of the Church and of his representatives, as well 
before as after Pope S f Gregory the Great, the thirteenth 
centenary of whose promotion to the Chair of Peter will 
be celebrated in Rome this year 2 ) with special solemnity. 
When in the course of centuries, partly through 
carelessness and inattention, partly through illegitimate 
customs and the arbitrary inferences of individuals, dis- 
order and differences of a serious nature arose, authority 
always found the ways and means wherewith to lead back 
the wanderers by degrees to uniformity. More than thirty 
years ago, when numerous varying Antiphonaries , Gra- 
duals, Rituals, etc., all professing to contain the Roman 
Plain Chant, forced themselves on the attention of the 
Chorister, he would select some one or other of these 
editions according to his own peculiar taste and judgment. 
But no sooner did he attend the sacred ceremonies in 

*) Joh. Cottonius writes in the 11 th century (G-eebeet, Scriptores, 
Tom. II. p. 260): u Cum enim constet, quod units Dominus una fide, uno 
baptismate, et omnino morum imitate oblectetur, quis non credat, quod idem 
ex multiplici cantorum discordia, quam non inviti, neque ignorantes, sed 
voluntarie constrepunt, offendatur?" 

u ) [The ninth German edition of the Magister Choralis was published 
in 1890, the year of the Gregorian centenary in Rome. Teanslatoe.] 


another Church or Diocese, or with the modern facilities 
of locomotion pay a visit to some other country, than 
he found the Gregorian Chant to sound strange and un- 
familiar. In every Church of his creed the Catholic 
would find the liturgical prayers and ceremonial identical, 
but in the liturgical chants endless variety would be the 
prevailing feature. The consequence was that those who 
were in doubt, would either neglect the chant altogether, 
or accustom themselves to consider it a mere matter of 
fancy, abandoned to the taste and caprice of the indi- 
vidual; following at one time a certain school, again an 
old tradition, or the results of archeological and scientific 
investigation, or authoritative recommendations, or highly 
praised methods of execution. 

Since the complete publication of the authentic Books 
of the Chant, embracing as they do every department of 
the Liturgy we can now attain uniformity with Roman 
practice in the singing of the Liturgy after much struggling 
against local traditions and customs ever since the Council 
of Trent, as we have already attained it in our prayers 
and ceremonial. The history of these struggles and labours 
may be found partly in Chap. 2 nd of this manual, and partly 
in the Brief of Leo XIII. issued on April 26 th 1883. 

The present manual has for its object to teach the 
correct manner of singing the authentic Choral Chants 
on the basis of history and tradition. 

The Editor of this manual for a long time hesitated 
as to how he should deal with this burning question and 
up to the fourth edition (1873) thought he should strive 
and consult for all tastes by conscientious reference to 
private opinions as they were known to him, and by quot- 
ing different editions, even though he had to gain the 


experience that u in order to be just so that everybody 
may like us, we should not be just at all." *) 

Since the authenticity of the Roman melodies is cer- 
tain, and since the will of the Holy Father has been 
unequivocally manifested as against the views, efforts and 
wishes of the archeologists of the Congress of Arezzo, 
no doubt can remain that only the supreme ecclesiastical 
authority can lead us to unity [uniformity] in singing, 
and silence the discord created by those parties who 
keep contending as to what are the best melodies. 2 ) 

The musical examples are taken exclusively from the 
typical editions of the authentic Roman choral books, 
whether as illustrating the theoretical principles borrowed 
from the mediaeval writers, or for teaching the intona- 
tions that should be familiar to priests and clerics. 

Since December 1883 the Papal Commission has laid 
down uniform principles regarding the selection of clefs, 
the use of ■. M, ♦, the division of the longer neume- 
groups, etc.; this unification in consistent notation must 
be regarded as a step of the greatest importance espe- 
cially for the attainment of uniformity in rendering the 
Chant, and has not only been adopted throughout in this 
manual, but also will be found explained in a distinct 
new Chapter. 

Moreover in this ninth edition, numerous improve- 
ments have been made in every Chapter, useful additions 
[in Chapters, 2. II. 3 ) 39. 48 and in the alphabetical Index 

*) Deutinger in the Preface to "Princip der neuen Philosophie." 

2 ) G-uido of Arezzo writes (Gerbert, 1. c. Tom. II. p. 20) : lUud 
prceterea scire te volo, quod in morem puri argenti omnis cantus quo magis 
usitatur eo magis cöloratur, et quod modo displicet, per usum, quasi lima 
politum, postea collaudatur. 

3 ) The number of exercises beginning with one line and proceed- 
ing methodically was increased in agreement with a suggestion of 


of abbreviations], and suitable observations regarding 
historical, archeological, or liturgical matters have been 
inserted; for, a book intended for instruction is always 
susceptible of further improvement. 1 ) 

By means of different type what is necessary is dis- 
tinguished from what is useful, in order that the teaching 
in training schools or of singers not acquainted with Latin 
may be facilitated. 

The author will always be thankful for the expression 
of further wishes, suggestions, additions, etc.; and will 
feel obliged for communications of defects and omissions, 
for stranger's eyes are sharper than one's own. 

F r . Angelo de Santi S. J., the translator of the Italian edition. In 
a similar manner the teacher can write down many exercises in the 
intervals on the black board. 

*) Translations of the Magister Choralis exist in English, French, 
Italian, Polish and Spanish. They are printed by the publisher of 
the German edition, which last year [1889] celebrated its silver Jubilee, 
the first edition having appeared in 1864. 

Ratisbon, 24 th February, 1890. 

Dr. F. X. Haberl 

Director of the Church Music School. 

CHAPTER 1 st . 

The Eoman Choral, or Gregorian Chant is the music 
proper to the Catholic Liturgy. It is essentially diatonic; 
that is, its melodies 1 ) proceed through the natural or 
principal Tones of the musical scale. These melodies 
should be sung in unison, without any fixed time-measure- 
ment, nevertheless according to the rhythm 2 ) of spoken 

The name Gregorian Chant (cantus Gregorianus), 
which is first met with in the Treatise by William of 
Hirschau, (ob. 5. July 1091), 3 ) is to be traced to the zeal 
for the Liturgy of that sainted Doctor of the Church, 
Gregory the First, surnamed the Great, (Pope from A. D. 
590 to 604), who collected, improved, and added to the 
several ecclesiastical chants in use up to his time (monu- 
menta patrum renovavit et auxit). The Cantus 8. Gregorii, 
that is to say, the authentic collection of Chants authorised 
by him, whether in the original codex or in an authenti- 
cated copy, has not as yet been discovered; but, the spirit 
of his method of Chant has been traditionally maintained 
in the Church down to our own day. 

x ) Melody is a series of single sounds arranged according- to certain 
musical laws, and which, by their variety and distribution into high 
and low, long and short, strong and weak sounds become pleasing to 
the ear. Harmony is the simultaneous sounding of two or more sounds. 
Modern melody is constructed on harmony as a foundation, whilst 
Gregorian melodies are formed out of the tones of the diatonic scale 
without any preconceived relation to harmonic accompaniment. 

-) Melody without Rhythm is a body without a soul. "Ehythm 
seizes upon the Tone -formation and endows it with movement and 
life." Thus writes Father Ambrose Kienle in "Choralschule". (Freibury 
in Brisgau, Herder, 1884, p. 39.) 

3 ) See Fr. Utto Kornmüller, Kirchenmus. Jahrbuch. Eatisbon, 1887. 
I p. 15; Gerbert, Scriptures de Musica Sacra, St. Blase, 1784, Vol. II., 
/ pp. 154 to 182; Hans Müller, Die Musik Wilhelms v. Hirschau, Leipzig, 1883, 

Magister Choralis. 


Gregorian Chant is called "Boman", because it was 
propagated from Rome the centre of Christendom. And 
even still, Rome insists on the title "Boman Chant", for 
that particular collection of Chants approved of by the 
Sacred Congregation of Rites, — a Congregation specially 
deputed by the Pope to take charge of the Liturgy, — 
in contradistinction to the various collections in use in 
different countries, Dioceses, and religious communities, 
which for the most part are only tolerated. 

It is manifest that to the Supreme Pontiff alone ap- 
pertains the duty of keeping watch and ward over all 
that concerns the Liturgy; and therefore, it is the Pope 
alone that can authorise as necessity may arise, any 
alteration, restoration or reform in the Chant to be used 
in that Liturgy. 

The designation "Choral Chant", dates from the 
period when the Clergy being assembled in choir (in 
choro), or in what was called the presbyterium , chanted 
the Divine Office unitedly or alternately. The term 
"chorale" employed in modern musical literature has 
quite a different meaning from "Bonian Choral". It is 
also a misnomer and the result of a confusion of ideas, 
to designate as "Gregorian Chant", certain musical com- 
positions used in Church service, which are written to 
be executed in parts by voices only and without Organ 
or instrumental accompaniment, such as the Church com- 
positions of Palestrina and his school. The following 
observation will make this clearer. 

OBSERVATION. In the tenth century an effort was 
made to accompany the Gregorian melodies with a second 
voice part. (For an account of Hucbald's Organum, see 
the Kirchenmusikalisches Jahrbuch for 1886 p. 13.) This 
second voice proceeded in Fourths, Fifths and Octaves, 
and the form of progression was what is known as motus 
rectus. In the eleventh century this method of accom- 

paniment was amplified, not only to the extent of em- 
ploying Thirds, but also of utilising the so-called Orga- 
num, whether in motu redo, or one voice holding steadily 
on to the one note, while the other parts moved up or 
down, (motus obliquus). Finally in the twelfth century 
even the motus contrarius came into use, and generated 
Diaphony or Discant (Discantus), especially in the cadences 
at the end of melodic phrases. In all these styles of ac- 
companiment the Gregorian melody was referred to, as 
the cantus firmus, (canto fermo), the fixed or unalterable 
voice part, in contradistinction to the other voices which 
moved about in counterpoint. 1 ) As however the rhythm 
of the simple unaccompanied chant suffered from these 
innovations and eventually became obscured by the over- 
crowding of these elaborated voice parts, the original 
gregorian melody came to be distinguished by yet another 
name, and was thenceforward known as cantus planus , 
or, plain chant. 

The period running from the 13 th to the 15 th centuries 
witnessed the growth of Polyphony, 2 ) which in the 15 th cen- 
tury through William du Fay (ob. 1474 in Cambray), and his 
pupils was still further perfected in its rhythmical aspect; 
and in the 16 th century it reached its highest artistic 
development at the hands of Giovanni Pierluigi da JPale- 
strina (Joannes Petrus Aloysius Prcenestinus, born in Pale- 
strina 1526, died at Rome, Feb. 2 nd 1594). In the 15 th cen- 
tury musical writers for the Church selected their themes 
for Masses or Motets mostly from the collected gregorian 
chants, giving the gregorian melody in notes of varied 
rhythm, though sometimes transferring it to one or other 
of the different voice parts. In the 16 th century the com- 

*) The term Counterpoint commenced to be used in the 12 th century. 
A note was called Punctum or point and consequently the accompany- 
ing" note placed directly under or over the note of the melody was 
called contra-punctum ; i. e. counter-point. 

2 ) In compositions for two or more voices, two distinct forms may 
be employed ; Omophony, when the other voices or parts merely serve 
as an accompaniment to the given melody; Polyphony, when the parts 
move about independently of each other but so as to form one har- 
monious whole. 

"E come in voce voce si discerne, 
Quand'una e ferma e l'altra va e riede, &c." 

Dante, Parad. VIII. 17. 

posers confined themselves to selecting a short melodic 
phrase from the liturgical chants as themes for their 
compositions, then such selections became rarer, until 
finally, in the 17 th century, this practice was altogether 
abandoned and polyphonic compositions for the Church 
began to be constructed according to the particular taste 
or fancy of the individual composers, and gradually be- 
came more and more profane in proportion as they 
receded from the liturgical canon of Gregorian Church 
Song. It is well to observe moreover, that between 
Gregorian Chant and the polyphony of the 15 th and 
16 th centuries, there is a close bond of union, and that 
for the proper execution of the works of this period, a 
thorough knowledge of the free rhythm of Gregorian is 
absolutely necessary. In the Preface to the first volume 
of his Musica Divina, the late Rev. Dr. Proske (ob. 
20. Dec. 1861) writes: "The universal and indispensable 
basis for understanding and interpreting the contrapuntal 
scores of the old masters of Church Music, is, the Gre- 
gorian Chant. Whosoever endeavours to restore them 
to their post of honour in any other way, whether by 
applying principles of modern art, or by adapting them 
to prevailing musical ideas, would not only miss the ob- 
ject he had in view, but for every step forward he would 
be taking two backward." 

CHAPTER 2 nd . 

The celebration of DivineWorship in the early Christian 
Church was necessarily arranged according to the simplest 
forms; and the Sacred Music which bore it company, 
must have been derived from the music of the Jewish 
Temple, which gradually assumed more definite and art- 
istic form under the influence of Greek learning and Greek 
art. The writings of the New Testament, especially the 
Gospels, were added on to the Lessons, Psalms, Homilies, 
(developments of Scripture texts), and Prayers which 
formed the chief divisions of Hebrew worschip; while 

special prominence was of course given to the commemo- 
ration of the Last Supper, — the Holy Sacrifice and the 
Blessed Eucharist, — according to the injunctions of 
Christ and of His Apostles. 

The three first centuries of the Christian era were 
not favourable to any fuller or more regular development 
of the Liturgy, much less to the uniformity of its Chant. 1 ) 
Already in the fourth century, four principal liturgies 
or forms of Christian worship may be distinguished: the 
Syrian, the Alexandrine, the Roman, and the Frankish 
or Callican. 2 ) In western nations, the Roman and Gallican 
prevailed; but in this text-book we only consider the 
Roman Liturgy, all the more so, that from the 5 th cen- 
tury it was adopted even in those countries where pre- 
viously the Gallican had obtained. 

OBSERVATION. "From the earliest Christian times 
we see the elements of Christian song coming out of 
Palestine and Hellas like two streams uniting and flowing 
on together. From the Musica Sacra of the Hebrews, 
the Chant of the early Christians derived its sacredness, 
and from the art of the Greeks, its Form, Rules and 
Beauty." 3 ) "We must consider the music of the early 
Christians as congregational or popular singing, con- 
structed according to the method and system of what 
was then ancient musical art, but penetrated, elevated 
and inspired by the new Christian spirit." 4 ) 

"Church Music was studied and the knowledge of it 
promoted with great zeal by the earliest and greatest 
amongst the Fathers of both the Eastern and Western 

*) "facies non omnibus una, nee diversa tarnen;" (the Rites) "are 
not always the same but they are alike". 

2 ) See for an account of the Latin Liturgy before Charlemagne, 
the epoch-making work of Duchesne, the editor of the Liber Pontifi- 
calis: "Origines du Culte Chretien. Etude sur la Liturgie Latine avant 
Charlemagne par l'Abbe L. Duchesne, membre de l'lnstitut." Paris, 
Erneste Thorin, 1889. 

3 ) Ambros, Geschichte der Musik. I. vol. p. 196. 

4 ) Idem, loco citato vol. II. p. 11. 


Churches. Some, from the earliest periods took care to 
provide specially appointed singers to render it in a more 
artistic manner, whilst in many places, singing schools 
had already been erected and endowed." 1 ) 

"Church Song attained a very high level through 
the zeal and ability of St. Ambrose, Bishop of Milan 
(ob. A. D. 397). He was not only himself well skilled 
in this sacred art, but he interested himself very actively 
about it, and was thenceforward regarded as the origi- 
nator of a regular musical system and of some special 
method of singing. In what precisely the beauty of Am- 
brosian Chant consisted we have no means of determining. 
Those probably come nearest the truth, who are of opi- 
nion, that the secret of its power on the emotions lay 
in its extreme simplicity and metrical movement." 2 ) 

Pope St. Gregory the Great (590 — 604) was the first 
to collect into one uniform whole the previously scattered 
and varying chants of the Liturgy. For the special reli- 
gious functions celebrated by the Pope with the Eoman 
Clergy in the Station Churches, he arranged and fixed 
the" Liturgy in the Liber Antiphonarius 3 ) (Book of Anti- 
phons or alternated chants). The better to carry out his 
reform he founded a special singing school in Rome, in 

*) Jakob, "die Kunst im Dienste der Kirche," 2. edit. p. 379. 

2 ) "Was ist ächte Kirchenmusik?" Schlecht (Geschichte der Kirchen- 
musik.; pp. 9 & 10. This explanation is justly deemed incorrect by 
Fr. Ambros Kienle, where at p. 120 of his Choralschule he writes : "The 
Ambrosian Chant was rhythmically free and not metrical; finally it 
was in part very simple, and in part richly melodious, as contemporary 
writers and the fragments that have come down to us testify. The 
difference between the Eoman and Milanese Chant was much less than 
what is imagined." 

3 ) Mediaeval writers use the expression Antiphonarius Cento. Ac- 
cording to Du Cange (Glossarium medice et infimce latinitatis), Rupert 
von Deutz at the year 591, and ßadulph von Diceto (A. D. 1210) write: 
"Gfregorius .... Antiphonarium regulariter centonizavit." The word 
centonizare signifies to collect or bring together from various sources, 
ex variis libris describere, excerpere. See also Griov. Batt. Martini, "Storia 
della Musica", vol. II. p. 108. The derivation from xspism = yungo, 
to prick or pierce, cannot be upheld, as this word is only employed 
in the sense of pricking or urging on an animal, .never in the sense 
of writing or pricking with the stylus. 


which he himself taught. From this school went forth 
teachers of the Roman Liturgical Chant to England with 
St. Augustin in A. D. 596. *) 

OBSERVATION. The first Ordo Bomanus speaks of 
two Chant Books; — the Cantatorium which previous to 
St. Gregory's time was used by the Deacon when singing 
the Graduate and similar' solo chants; — and the Anti- 
phonarium, which contained the Introits, Offertories, Com- 
munions and Antiphons and was used by the Schola Can- 
torum. 2 ) In this school boys from a very tender age 
destined for the Ecclesiastical state were educated. Before 
Gregory's time it was called the Schola Lectorum and 
served as a seminary for the Deacons, 3 ) who were re- 
quired to possess a good voice and abilities for singing 
the solos of the Gradual. At the Council held in 595, in 
consequences of abuses that had arisen, Gregory dispensed 
the Deacons from the singing of the Gradual. 4 ) 

In the 7 th century Pope Vitalian (A. D. 657—672) 
sent Theodore to Canterbury as Archbishop with com- 
panions to instruct in the Chant; and in 679, the Roman 
singer John, taught the English Monks and Ecclesiastics. 
In 716, the monk Wilfrid, (St. Boniface), with his com- 
panions preached the Gospel to the German nations, and 
as they were well acquainted with the Roman Liturgy, 
so also did they introduce the Roman Chant. Pope Za- 
chary (A. D. 741—752) encouraged the Apostle of the 

*) ["Honorius , 4 th successor of Augustin in the metropolitan See 
of Canterbury, was a monk of Mount Coelius at Borne, and one of the 
first companions of St. Augustin in his mission to England. He was 
a disciple of St. Gregory, and had learned from the great Pontiff the 
art of music, and it was he who led the choir of monks on the oc- 
casion of the first entrance of the missionaries thirty years before at 
Canterbury." Montalembert, "Monks of the West", vol. III. p. 447. 

2 ) See Duchesne, 1. c. p. 110. 

3 ) Giov. Batt. de Eossi, Bulletino, 1883, p. 19, also Fr. X. Haberl, 
"Die röm. schola cantorum", 3. Heft der Bausteine für Musikgeschichte, 
Leipzig, Breitkopf & Härtel. 

4 ) Duchesne, 1. c. p. 162. 


Germans to do away with the Gallican Liturgy which 
had been extensively propagated throughout Franconia. 1 ) 

In i 760, Pope Paul sent an Antiphonarium and a 
Besponsoriale to King Pepin, but it was chiefly due to 
the energetic efforts of Charlemagne, who had specially 
addressed Pope Adrian (A. D. 784—791) on the subject, 
that the Roman method of chant was established through- 
out Franconia. In Germany and France renowned 
schools sprung up, especially in connection with the Ca- 
thedrals and Monasteries, so that daily, and at every 
hour of the day, in thousands of churches the praises of 
God resounded in one uniform strain. In this way a 
certain fixed tradition grew up, at least as regards the 
manner of rendering the Chant. 2 ) 

Whether Pope Gregory made use of the letters of 
the Alphabet or of symbols (points, accents, &c.) to de- 
signate the sounds is uncertain; but it is certain that 
whatever signs he adopted they were not adequate to 
determine the intervals with exactness. In course of time 
this imperfect 3 ) method of notation rendered necessary 
some kind of oral tradition, which however differing in 
different localities completely destroyed in the course of 
time all uniformity in rendering the Plain Chant melodies. 

OBSERVATION. Duchesne in his Origines du Quite 
Chretien, p. 98, writes: "The Popes confined themselves 
[in their efforts to diffuse the knowledge of the Chant] 
to sending copies of their liturgical books, without making 
any special provision as to the use that should be made 
of them. The persons whom the Frankish Kings, Pepin, 

J ) Idem. 1. c. p. 96. 

a ) See Walter's article, "der Musikunterricht in Deutschland", in 
K.-M. Jahrbuch, 1887, p. 41. 

3 ) "Cantum per hsec signa (neumata) nemo per se addiscere potest, 
sed oportet ut aliunde audiatur, et longo usu discatur, et propter hoc 
hujusmodi cantus nomen usus accepit". Gferbert, "Scriptores," Tom. III. 
p. 202. 

Charlemagne and Louis the Pious charged with the ex- 
ecution of the liturgical reform , did not consider them- 
selves prohibited from supplementing the Roman books, 
and even inserting those portions of the Gallican liturgy 
which they thought worth while preserving. Hence 
arose a liturgy of a rather composite character, which, 
spreading abroad from the Imperial chapel throughout 
all the Churches of the Frankish Empire, finished by 
finding its way to Rome itself, and there supplanting 
little by little the ancient use. The Roman Liturgy, since 
the 11 th century at least, is nothing else than the Frankish 
Liturgy, such as it was elaborated by Alcuin, by Helisa- 
char and by Amalarius. It is also strange that the an- 
cient Roman books, those which contained the pure Roman 
use up to the 9 th century, have been so carefully elimi- 
nated, that not a single copy of them survives." What 
is said here of the Liturgical books, may also be predi- 
cated of the books of the Chant, of which not one extant 
goes back farther than the 8 th century. The so-called 
Sacrament arium Gregorianum *) which Pope Hadrian sent 
to Charlemagne by John Abbot of Ravenna, 2 ) between 
784 and 791, was altered in the copying and Gallican 
elements were introduced. Moreover it contained only 
the Roman Station-festivals, with additions made by Popes 
that came after Gregory, so that Duchesne 1. c. p. 119 
justly observes that to avoid mistake it should rather be 
called the Sacrament arium Hadrianum. A similar fate 
may have befallen the Antiphonary, the same which John 
the^ Deacon speaks of, and which even in his time was 
chained to St. Peter's altar. 

Guido, surnamed of Arezzo 3 ) made good use, during 
the first half of the 11 th century, of the horizontal lines 
discovered by the Flemish Hucbald of St. Amancl (A.D. 930), 

*) See the edition of Muratori, Lit. Bom. vetus, Tom. II. 

2 ) De Sacramentario vero a sancto disposito prsedecessore nostro 
deifluo Gregorio Papa: immixtum vobis emitteremus. Cod. Carol, edit. 
Jaffe, p. 274. 

3 ) According to latest discoveries (revue de Hart chretienne, 1888) 
Guido was educated in the monastery of St. Maur des Fosses, Paris. 
See concerning him the article of Fr. Utto Kornmüller in the Cäcilien- 
Kalender of 1876, and in the K.-M. Jahrbuch of 1887 and 1890. 


for systematically fixing and naming each note, and there- 
by considerably facilitated the study of music. Quite 
a crowd of theorists from the 9 th to the 15 th centuries 
busied themselves with explanations of the Scale, and 
with rules for the teaching of singing, of the Modes, of 
Rhythm, &C 1 ) During the course of the 12 th century the 
various manuscript codices written in neumes were trans- 
ferred into the clearer and larger [Gregorian] staff notation. 
But, the character of these translations was very much 
determined by locality, as the possibility of multitudinous 
interpretations and renderings of the neumatic signs gave 
rise in the 11 th century to different ways of chanting one 
and the same text, according to the teaching which the 
singers received in the several Cathedrals and Cloisters. 2 ) 
The principle however that the Gregorian Chant was 
the special liturgical music of the Church was never sur- 
rendered. Even, when in the course of time, the several 
Teachers and Dioceses contended with laudable zeal for 
the genuineness each of their own reading, and sought 
to outdo one another in assertions and arguments to prove 
the identity of their several melodies with the original 
text of St. Gregory, in all places, the principle of decla- 
matory melody founded on the Diatonic Scale remained 
intact and unimpaired. This principle was still in force 
in the 13 th century, when a beginning was made to ab- 
breviate the melodies themselves which in course of time 
had become overladen with the too artistic ornamentation or 

*) Fr. Utto Kommittier in the K.-M. Jahrbuch of 1886 and 1889, 
published an epitome of the mediaeval Theorists. The principal names 
are: Remigius of Auxerre. Notker, Hucbald, Regino von Prüm, Oddo, 
Gruido, Berno, William of Hirschau, John Cottonius, St. Bernard and 
his school, John de Ofarlandia, &c, &c. 

2 ) In K.-M. Jahrbuch 1890, p. 93, Fr. Utto Kornmüller writes: 
"It is bad logic to infer from the uniformity of the notated manuscripts 
and their resemblance to those in neumes, the identity of these two 
classes of manuscripts. The opinion that the notated melodies are a 
correct translation of the neumes, and consequently genuine Gregorian, 
cannot be received." 


tasteless mannerisms of the singers. These abbreviations 
however went hand in hand with the alterations made 
in the Missal, Breviary, and other Liturgical books, and 
were adapted to the circumstances of the period which 
required both for congregation and choir, that the Sacred 
Functions should be less protracted. The Roman See 
especially, considering the Gregorian as its own native 
chant, claimed and exercised the right to extend to the 
chant, the alterations that might happen to be made in 
the books of the Liturgy, and never permitted the latter 
to be published without these melodies. But it was 
after the Council of Trent, and towards the end of the 
16 th century, that Rome made special efforts to bring 
about uniformity in both Liturgy and Chant. 

In 1582, appeared the Directorium Chori; in 1587, 
the Cantus ecclesiasticus officii maj. held.; in 1588, the 
Prcefationes in cantu firmo, all edited by Guidetti under 
the auspices of Gregory XIII, and SixtusY: in 1614, and 
1615, the Graduate Bomanum appeared from the Medi- 
csean printing offices, and in 1614 the Bituale Bomanum 
at the desire of Pope Paul Y, whilst in 1611 was printed 
in two folio volumes, the Antiphonarium Bomanum, by 
Joachim Trognäsius in Antwerp. The Hymns, which 
Giov. Pier-Luigi da Palestrina had already published in 
1589, were by order of Urban YIII in 1644, again re- 
edited with the accompanying Chant according to the 
revised text. In fine, in obedience to the Decrees and 
wishes of Trent, quite a laudable rivalry was soon deve- 
loped everywhere to publish large and small editions of 
the Chant for use in the various functions, and with a 
view to facilitate its acquirement. 

In our own time Pius IX, in 1869 undertook a further 
revision of the Choral Books, and ordered that appropriate 
chants be provided for all the offices introduced into the 
Liturgy since the 17 th century. He entrusted this work 


to the Sacrorum Bituum Congregatio (S. R. C. = Con- 
gregation charged with the guardianship of the Liturgy 
and Sacred Rites), which with the concurrence of the Pope 
nominated a special commission of five skilled and com- 
petent Professors. This commission determined the fun- 
damental principles of the Roman Chant as they were 
embodied after the Council of Trent, though not yet gene- 
rally fixed or adopted uniformly in all their bearings, 
and examined the new melodies for new offices that were 
put before them. 1 ) 

But since 1884, we have a complete and authentic 
edition of all the Liturgical books which contain the 
Gregorian-Roman Chant. This colossal and costly work 
was undertaken by the Pontifical printer, Frederick Pustet 
of Ratisbon, to whom, in consideration of his enterprising 
spirit, an exclusive printing privilege of thirty years was 
granted by the Holy See, whilst all proprietary rights 
remain reserved to the Sacred Congregation. 2 ) The se- 
veral editions brought out by De Yoght, and E. Duval of 
Mechlin, those by Jacques Lecoffre of Paris, the Rheims- 
Cambrai edition, the Liber Gradualis of Dom Pothier 
and others similar, were submitted to the Holy See after 
they had been published; and the Holy Father was pleased 
to signify his appreciation of the praiseworthy zeal dis- 
played by both authors and editors in their efforts to 

x ) Dr. Thalhofer writes in his Handbook for Catholic Liturgy, 
Freiburg, Herder, 1887, p. 38: "The Church authorities are certainly 
not to be blamed, if, recently, the better to bring about all possible 
uniformity in liturgical chant, they did not rely upon the ever unsteady 
archaeological principles, but, in the official edition of the Choral-books, 
kept steadily to melodies now long established in use." See also, 
pp. 549 et seqq. 

2 ) The position which some wish to make for science and archaeo- 
logy against the Liturgy and liturgical chant must be decidedly rejected. 
Nowhere does the Church take a more decided stand than in the Li- 
turgy. Archaeological science comes in only as a helpmate not as a 
judge; she can help to its better understanding, and within certain 
limits co-operate, but she has no right to command. See Musica Sacra, 
1889, pp. 58 et seqq. 


promote the study and practice of Plain Chant. The 
principal difference however between these private enter- 
prises and the official editions of the Sacred Congre- 
gation of Rites, lies in the fact, that every single sheet 
of this latter was sent for revision to the Commission 
established by the Holy See; which having examined it 
as it came before them, and made the necessary cor- 
rections, passed it on to the Sacred Congregation where 
it was stamped and sealed and delivered over to the 
printer. The Brief of the Holy Father dated May 30 th 
1873, says: „We particularly recommend this edition to 
all local Ordinaries; the more so, as it is Our sincere 
desire, that in all Dioceses and localities, as in other 
liturgical matters, so also in the Church Chant, the same 
customs be uniformly observed as prevail in the Roman 
See." Notwithstanding this explicit declaration of the 
mind of the Supreme Pontiff, disputes, suspicions and 
doubts arose as to the authentic character of the official 
editions, and Rome was obliged to confirm in 1877, what 
Pius IX had so clearly expressed. The sincere desire 
of the latter Pontiff, which so closely resembled a com- 
mand, was reiterated in a similar sense by his glorious 
successor the reigning Pontiff Leo XIII. 1 ) 

Moreover the Sacred Congregation has again and 
again issued clear precise and definite answers to the 
many queries, doubts and difficulties that have arisen 
regarding the authenticity of these choral books, declar- 
ing them to contain the cantus legitimus. Finally, when 
the so-called "Congress for Liturgical Music", which was 
assembled in Arezzo 2 ) in 1882 impugned, though only 
indirectly, the official editions, with a view to having 
substituted a still newer edition based upon scientific and 

*) See Preface. 

2 ) On the History and results of this see "Offene Briefe" von Prof. 
J. Lans, Kegensburg, Pustet. 


archaeological principles, the Sacred Congregation put an 
end to all further discussion by a Decree of April 26 th 
1883. 1 ): As a consequence of this Decree, came the order, 
that all copies of the Antiphonarium and Graduate should 
bear on the title page these words: "cura et auctoritate 
S. B. C. digestum Hornce", and that the chants contained 
in the Missal, Rittfal and Pontifical, precisely because 
these books were now obligatory for the universal Church, 
should no longer be* allowed to see. the light, even in 
extracts, without the express approval of the Sacred Con- 
gregation. In consequence of these public acts, the official 
editions were received, even before April 1883, in the 
majority of the Dioceses of Germany, 2 ) America and 
Holland; whilst the Synods of 'Westminster, 1873 and 
Maynooth 1875 solemnly accepted them and recommended 
them for England and Ireland. Since the recent Decrees 
of the Holy See they are gradually being adopted in 
many countries and dioceses where previously private 
editions had been in use, and all publishers, who hence- 
forward undertake to publish Missals, Eituals and Pon- 
tificals, are obliged by the S. Congregation to adhere 
scrupulously to the typical editions (editiones typicce) both 
as regards the melodies themselves and the method of 

*) On this Decree see J. Bogaerts: "Le Congres d'Arezzo" and 
Cäcilien-Kalender for 1884 as well as the periodicals "Semaine religieuse 
du Diocese de Perigueux et de Sarlat" 1883, N°. 43 and following, and 
"Semaine religieuse du Diocese de Laval" 1883, N°. 42. 

2 ) Notwithstanding that from the havoc wrought during the 
19 th century in those nurseries of art and liturgy, — Monasteries, 
Cathedral and Collegiate Church, — zeal for the production of Gre- 
gorian chant has grown cold, there remains the fact that the Cecüian 
Union in Germany for the improvement of Church Music approved 
by the Holy See, gives us ground for hope that not only in large 
Churches, but even in the smallest and poorest, a general study of 
Gregorian chant will grow up, especially as copies of the Choral 
Books are now so procurable in their cheap stereotyped editions. See 
"Musica Sacra", 1889, pp. 30 et seqq. 


CHAPTER 3 d . 

Bound up as Gregorian Chant has been with the 
ceremonial of the Catholic Church and pervading her 
whole liturgical existence, it is an essential part of the 
Liturgy. The language to which it is 'wedded is sonorous 
and dignified; the place where it is heard is holy; and 
the melody itself is simple and clear yet sublime. All 
this determines its purpose, fits it to be an integral part 
of the Church's worship, and discloses to us the influence 
of that Divine Spirit which governs the universal Church. 
"The Catholic knows its worth, when he goes to the most 
distant part of the globe, and finds there the service of 
the Church, even to the smallest detail, just as he left 
it at home." *) Thus far Ambros writing of the Liturgy, 
but the passage is equally applicable to Liturgical Chant. 
"We can scarce imagine," writes the same author in his 
History of Music, "a more expressive manner of singing, 
or one that so thoroughly satisfies all the demands of 
the Liturgy. The History of Art . . . must recognise the 
great dignity, immense simplicity and penetrating force 
of the Gregorian melodies that are still used in the 
Church." 2 ) The Protestant Thibaut in his little book, 
"Purity in musical art", says that "the Ambrosian and 
Gregorian melodies and intonations (as far as we know 
them) are truly celestial; — created by genius in the 
happiest ages of the Church and cultivated by art, they 
penetrate the soul far more than most of our modern 
compositions written for effect." Otto Kade, editor of 
the Luther- Codex of 1530, writes (1871) in the Intro- 
duction: "Gregorian Chant or Choral Song in its wider 

*) Kulturhistorische Bilder aus dem Musikleben der Gegenwart. 
^By A. W. Ambros. Leipzig, H. Matthes. 

*) Ambros, Musikgeschichte. 2. Vol. p. 67. 


signification — vox verbi divini — is among all the pro- 
ducts of the Church's energy, her most substantial, pecu- 
liar, deeply tender and most beautiful creation. Nothing 
in this world equals the inestimable value of these won- 
derful characters and song-forms, on which the Church 
has been labouring for a thousand years in order to bring 
them to perfection. No music touches them in their ex- 
pressive melodic phrases; they constitute the most nry- 
sterious tone-language in the world and form the most 
precious possession of a community, which, in this rich 
selection of song-forms, one for every liturgical text and 
sometimes even two, finds a central point where Art 
and Religion meet. They are the Bible in music." 

„The Choral (cantus gregorianus) ," writes Witt in 
his Musica Sacra (1868 pag. 90), "is the most finished 
"and most sublime production of that Art-epoch, when 
"Melodies were found, without having to think of their 
"accompaniment or harmonization: it is an imperishable, 
"unattainable master- piece of natural musical decla- 
ration." 1 ) 

The Council of Trent in few but decided words, com- 
manded the "teaching and cultivation of the "chant in 
Diocesan seminaries and similar institutes." 2 ) Thence- 
forward Rome and several national and provincial Councils 
enacted similar Decrees. 3 ) 

x ) Dr. Witt in Musica Sacra, 1868, p. 90. 

2 ) Cone. Trid. Sess. XXIII. cap. 18, de reform. "Granrmatices, cantus, 
computi ecclesiastici, aliarumque bonarnm artinni disciplinam discent." 

3 ) The Council of Eome 1725, the Provincial Council of Balti- 
more 1837, the National Synod of Baltimore 1866, the Provincial 
Council of Cologne 1860, several Pastorals of Bishops; e. g. of the 
Card. Archbishop of Mechlin , of Bishop Valentine of Ratisbon take 
up and recommend with great earnestness the cultivation of Gregorian 
Chant. The "Collectio Lacensis" i. e. Acta et Deer eta Sacrorum Conci- 
liorum recentiorum. Vols. 1—6 at Freiburg in Breisgau published by 
Herder from 1870—1884 bring together the several Decrees and Re- 
solutions passed on this subject by the several Provincial Councils \ 
occurring from 1687 down to 1869. 


The active life of Catholic Art (as developed in 
Architecture, Sculpture and Painting) must breathe and 
palpitate as well in Church Music and Plain Song, for 
it is universally acknowledged that all arts flourish hand 
in hand with the Church. It is but a duty of justice to 
restore to this worthy but long dishonoured Chant its 
early esteem and symbolism of unity. Of Gregorian Chant 
it may be safely said what Goethe remarks: "Music in 
"its best sense stands little in need of novelty, as the 
"older it is, and the more one is accustomed to it, the 
"more impressive it becomes." "The Choral is not the 
"work of individuals, of this or that composer, it is the 
"music of the Church . . . The Priest who represents the 
"heavenly bridegroom, entones the wedding song; and the 
"friends of the bridegroom join in holy love and joy." *) 
"The Gregorian is of quite a different artistic construction 
"from modern music, it has melodies of a peculiar kind, 
"that require peculiar treatement." 2 ) The prejudices that 
have arisen against Gregorian Chant, originate either 
through ignorance of its real nature and purpose, or 
because of the way in which it is, alas! too frequently 
disfigured by a faulty rendering. Bad execution of Gre- 
gorian Chant has beyond all doubt brought it into dis- 
repute; whereas a man has but to work with perseverance 
in learning its spirit and true form, to be forced to ac- 
knowledge its sublimity and grandeur. 3 ) 

x ) Amberger, Pastoraltheologie, II. Vol. p. 228. 

2 ) M. l'Abbe Cloet, Kecueil de melodies liturgiques, Tom. II. 

3 ) The unreasonable denunciations of Gregorian Chant as being 
gloomy, wearisome and ice-cold, or as Luther called it "the cry of the 
wild ass", here find their explanation. The experience : corruptio optimi 
pessima is painfully verified in the matter of Gregorian Chant; but 
the fault lies not with the Song, but with the Singers. Luther in 
another place writes : "We have for good example adopted the beauti- 
ful music employed under popery on Vigils, Dead Masses, Funerals &c, 
have printed it in this little book of music, and mean in time to take 
more. Of course I have put other words to it . . . The Song and the 
notes are very valuable; it were a shame that they should be lost." 

Magister Choralis. 2 


After so many testimonies both from friends and 
foes, I will conclude this paragraph with just one more, 
that of the Cistercian writer Mauritius Vogt. *) "These 
"strong, measured, emphatic, sublime, true, chaste, peace- 
breathing, lovely and truly holy melodies, have been 
"composed by holy men. This song eschews the court 
"of the Prince, and never enters the Concert Hall or 
"Music Saloon ; it ventures within the Holy of Holies and 
"abides there. No one has ever sought to drive it from 
"out of the Church of God, unless he did not belong to 
"the Church of God. This kind of Music has ever com- 
"manded honour and esteem, because like a Queen, she 
"sets up her throne in the Temples of the Most High, 
"and with clear voice makes herself heard, when the 
"preacher is silent in the Chancel. But if her sister y 
"figured music, has anything to say, let her value the 
"axiom: Musica debet esse honesta; 2 ) music must be ap- 
propriate, and must not disfigure the plain-chant; non 
"debet deformare cantum planum," 

If Kichard Wagner 3 ) wishes Church Music to become 
again purely and exclusively vocal, so also has he ren- 
dered valuable service to Choral Chant, studying to assign 
to the Theatre what belongs to the Theatre, and preserve 
to the Church what is strictly her own. 

A Benedictine Father of Beuron in the Danube valley, in his 
little book dedicated to the Gferman Hierarchy: Choral und Liturgie, 
Schaffhausen, Hurter, 1865, has taken up the cause of the Chant very 
warmly. He clamours for a proper method of singing the Chant,, 
and names as a primary and essential principle for good, execution a 
correct idea of its importance in Christian ivorship and of its connection 
with the Liturgy. (This book is translated in 1 st vol. of Lyra Ecclesiastica.) 

A still more complete and valuable work for promoting good 
rendering of the Chant is the "Melodies Gregoriennes" of the Benedictine 
Father of Solesmes Dom Joseph Pothier. 

l ) In "Tractatus Musicus" etc. of P. Meinrad Spiess, cap. 15, p. 70. 

*) Extravag. de vita et hon. Cleric. Cap. Docta. 

3 ) Complete edition of his writings. 2. vol. p. 337: "The human 
voice which is the immediate organ for delivering the Sacred text, and 
not instrumental ornamentation, or I should say, that trivial fiddling 


CHAPTER 4 th . 


In order to facilitate the study of the Principles and 
Practice of Plain Chant the entire matter of this Manual 
may be classified under the following heads: 1 st , Prelimi- 
nary Notions; 2 na , Plain Chant, Theoretical and Practical; 
and 3 d , Further notions of Plain Chant. 

It is not our intention to compile a method for teach- 
ing singing, yet as plain chant demands the knowledge 
of those elementary principles which are usually met with 
in ordinary singing grammars, it becomes necessary for 
us in this first part to treat in a condensed manner of 
sounds, intervals, notes, lines, clefs, rhythm, management 
of the voice, pronunciation, de. Sc. 


This part divides itself into two sections, a) Theore- 
tical, in which we explain the nature of the old Gregorian 
modes and their employment in simple choral chant; and 
b) Practical, where we introduce our pupils in short 
paragraphs to an acquaintance with the Church Calendar, 
with the arrangement and use of the several liturgical 
books, and with the whole domain of catholic Gregorian- 
Church music in one comprehensive view. 

From the 10 th century musical theorists were accustomed 
to divide all choral chant into accentus and concentus. *) 

which enters into most of our present Church Music, should take the 
lead in the Church; and if ecclesiastical music is ever to be restored to 
its original purity, vocal music must oust the instrumental and occupy 
the piace this has usurped." 

*) Under the name Accentus, were classed those portions of the 
Ritual Song chanted or intoned by the officiating Priest, the Deacon, 
Sub-Deacon or other Sacred Ministers at the Altar; in contradistinction 
to Concentus , which referred to all that should be sung by the As- 
sistants or by a special trained Choir. To the Accentus belong, the 
Intonations of the Gloria and Credo, the Preface, Pater noster, Gospel, 



Following the order of the solemnities of Catholic 
worship, and of the distribution of the chants employed in 
each, the following arrangement will be observed: 1) The 
holy sacrifice of the Mass, 2) the Canonical Hours, 3) the 
extraordinary solemnities occurring during the Church year. 

Under each heading we shall insert, as they occur, 
the Decrees of the Sacred Congregation of Rites bearing 
on the Chant, both what are to be found in the Ccere- 
moniale Episcoporum, as well as in the several special 
Decrees affecting certain cases or localities. 

An Appendix contains general directions for Church 
Organ playing, and special hints for the accompaniment 
of Gregorian Chant. 

The accentus is fully given in this book according 
to the official Choral books, principally the Missal and 
the Birectorium Chori; for the concentus the Graduals and 
Antiphonaries must be consulted, as well as the extracts 
made from them, such as the Ordinarium Missce, Vespe- 
rale Romanum, &c. &c. 


A further, deeper and more intimate acquaintance 
with Plain Chant must be attained if ever it is to bloom 
and flourish; the mere theoretical and practical knowledge 
just referred to will not be enough. 

This part of the Manual will therefore contain I. 
general considerations and principles for the execution 
of Plain Chant, and an inquiry into its spirit and its 
intimate connection with Divine worship; II. Special 
considerations for the execution of a) recitative chant, 
b) modulated chant, and c) of those richer and fuller 
melodies expressed in neuntes or formulas. 

Epistle, Collects and Prayers, the Passion, Prophecies and Martyrology, 
To the Concentus the Introit, Kyrie, Gloria and Credo (minus the in- 
tonation), Gradual and Tract, Sequence, Offertory, Sanctus, Agnus 
Dei, Communion, Antiphons, Responsories, Hymns &c. 

PART I st . 

CHAPTER 5 th . 



I. As speech preceded writing, so also did choral 
song precede any method of notation. It was long before 
any successful attempt was made to indicate in writing 
the different musical sounds according to their muteness or 
gravity, their length or brevity, their strength or delicacy. 

The theorists of the middle ages l ) followed Boetius 
(ob. 524), who displaced the Greek (enharmonic- chromatic) 
system by his latin (diatonic) alphabetical notation, although 
he retained the Greek words for naming the sounds. As 
lowest note of the scale he fixed la, an octave under 
Mese {(^rjorj) or the middle note of a man's voice. 

There is no authentic evidence that Gregorypie Great 
indicated the musical sounds by letters, still less that he 
established any system of notation; in all probability, he 
availed himself of simple and grouped marks of accen- 
tuation. Very early however the first 15 letters of the 
Alphabet from A to P were employed for naming the 
sounds which were also known as the "Boetian letters". 
Later on, and for a prolonged period, the seven first 
letters of the Alphabet written in different ways were 
adopted for the usual fifteen sounds, namely: 

ABCDEFGabcdefg aa. 2 ) 

x ) See on this subject K.-M. Jahrbuch, 1886 & 1887, in KornmüUer's 
Article "Die Musiktheoretiker". The History of notation will be found 
fully treated in the "Studien zur Geschichte der Notenschrift" of Dr. Hugo 
Kiemann, Leipzig 1878, also in Ambros "Geschichte der Musik" II. Vol. 
and in P. Ans. Schubiger "Die Sängerschule von St. Gallen", and Mus. S. 
1889 in the article "Die Interpunktion und der Choralgesang." 

') In modern notation: 9 ' ~~~^r 


After the first seven letters the tones and semitones 
returned in the same order. Theoretical writers fully a 
hundred years before Guido's ! ) time (born about A.D. 1000) 
added the Greek letter Gamma below the scale, and 
extended it upwads to ee ? so that Guido's scale numbered 
20 sounds, thus: 

r A B C DEFG a b t[c d efgaa bbt[ cc dd and ee. 
graves finales acutae superacutae excellentes superadded 

Each group of four notes, with the semitone variously 
located, was called a Tetrachord, and the union of all 
the Tetrachords in a continous scale was called the 
Systema maximum. 

The note b, in the second septenary, and bb in the 
third, (not the first B) may represent our b\ natural 
(b durum or quadratum) , or |? i. e. b flat (b motte or 

"The graves, (grave or deep), are so called from their 
"low deep sound; the finales, (final), because every melody, 
"(as we shall see further on when we come to speak of 
"the Modes) terminates in one or other of them ; the acuta, 
"(acute or sharp), from their high acute sound ; the super- 
u acutce, because still higher than the acute; and the ex- 
u cellentes, (excelling), because surpassing all the others in 
"the pitch and fineness of their tone." 2 ) These sounds 
had no fixed pitch, as in modern music; a for example 
might be sounded as our c, provided only the semitone 
which occurs between B-C, E-F, a-b, bj}-c, e-f, aa-bb, 
bbjf-cc be retained in its proper place. 

Guido himself, or Guido's school has also the credit 
of adopting the syllables ever since used in Solmisation 

*) See on Ghiido, Angeloni, Kiesewetter, Ambros. II. vol. pp. 144 
to 216, and Kornmüller in Cäcilien-Kalender 1876 & 1887. 

2 ) See the article: "Die Choralkompositionslehre vom 10. — 13. Jahr- 
hundert" of P. M. Kornmüller in "Monatshefte für Musikgeschichte" 
1872, p. 63. 


or solf aing, for the notes CD E F G a. They were the 
initial syllables of a verse in the Hymn sung on St. John 
the Baptist's Festival. 1 ) 

Ut queant laxis .Famuli tuorum, 

i^esonare fibris Solve polluti 

Mra gestorum Labii reatum, 

Sancte Joannes. 

In this succession of six Tones, called thenceforward 
a Hexachord; the semitone lies between the 3 d and 4 th 
degree, E-F; the same occurs in the second septenary 
from c to aa. 

This position of the semitone between the 3 d and 
4 th degree is also verified in the scale or hexachord from 
r to JE, Gr to e, g to ee, F to d, and / to dd, except 
that in these two latter hexachords, the e 'b" and ( W 
must be understood to be "b flat" and not "b natural", 
in order to avoid the Tritonus or augmented fourth. 
These six sounds were marked with the syllables ut, re, 
mi, fa, sol, la, and as mi falls on e and fa on f the 
semitone was always designated as mi fa. 

OBSERVATION. Together with the alphabetical 
designation ten of the twenty sounds can be indicated 
by two, six by three, and four by one of the six syllables 

*) This Hymn was written about 796 by Paul Warnefried, known 
as Paulus Diaconus. Gruido utilised the melody of it then in use, to 
facilitate for his pupils the striking and naming of the Tones, as the 
several lines of the verse commencing with C proceeded in regular 
order through the notes of the scale to a. On the syllable sa however, 
g occurred again. In a Montpellier Manuscript belonging to the 
10 th century the same melody is given to the Ode of Horace "Est mihi 
nonus". It cannot now be decided whether it was originally composed 
for the Ode or for the Hymn "Ut queant". See Coussemaker in his 
"Histoire de Vharmonie au moyen-age". Paris 1852, p. 103, table X. 
The melody was added to according to the wish of the S. Congre- 
gation by one marked as "second" in the official editions. It is worthy 
of remark that St. John the Baptist well into the 17 th century was 
honoured as Patron of Singers, because of the reference made in a 
portion of the Hymn: "Qui reformasti genitus peremptce organa vocis", 
as at his birth speech was restored to his father, Zachary. 







? I ^ 

r « a 



I ».00 



according to the position they occupy in the hexachord, 

as in the following table: 

ee la 

dd la sol 

cc sol fa 

bb J?fa flmi 

aa la mi re Nete hyperbolceon 

g sol re ut Paranete kyperbolceon 

f fa ut Trite kyperbolceon 

e la mi Nete diezeugmenon 

d la sol re Paranete diezeugmenon 

c sol fa ut Trite diezeugmenon 

b |?fa t|mi Paramese "i Dia- 

t a la mi re Meson / zeuxis 

Gr sol re ut Lichanos meson 
F fa ut Parhypate meson 
E la mi Hypate meson 
D sol re Lichanos hypaton 
C fa ut Parhypate hypaton 
B mi Hypate hypaton 
A re Proslambanomenos. 

^r ut 

The three Hexachords ! ) beginning with J 7 , G, g, are 
called Hexachorda dura (hard), on account of the Jf, that 

*) The greek names annexed in the table above were given 
from the time of Boetius by the mediaeval theorists as secondary 
names to the fifteen sounds of two octaves, called the systema teleion. 
We add them here for the benefit of those who may wish to study 
more deeply the grecian and mediaeval terminology. The greeks had 
four Tetrachords, of which the lowermost (hypaton) went from E to Bj[; 
the A was added on below and called Proslambanomenos; the second 
Tetrachord (a to E) is called Meson. Between a and bfc] occurred the 
Diazeuxis (separation) and from e to b downwards began the Tetrachord 
diezeugmenon. The fourth Tetrachord ranged from aa to e and was 
named hyperbolceon (the high note). Nete means highest, Paranete next 
highest, ' trite, the third ; mese is the middle degree of the system, para- 
mese next above the middle, lichanos the index-finger note, parhypate 
the penultimate degree of the lowermost series, li the Diazeuxis was 
not to be observed, then you should read from the highest note of 
the Tetrachordon meson (a) to the paranete diezeugmenon the semitone 
b flat, and the tetrachord resulting was called Tetrachordon synemmenon 
(bound together) the 

a became mese 

b flat „ trite 

„ paranete 





is b durum occurring in it; the two beginning with C 
and c are called Hexachorda naturalia (natural), because 
neither a \? or \ occurs in them; and the two beginning 
with F and f are called Hexachorda mollia, because of 
the presence in both of the b molle or rotundum. Again 
G has the syllable sol in the natural hexachord, re in 
the soft or molle hexachord, and ut in the hexachord 
durum: b natural can be only called mi, and b flat fa. 
These three hexachords may be dove-tailed into one 
another in the following manner. 

ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la. 
r, A, B, C, D, E. 

ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la. 

C, D, E, F, G, a. 

ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la. 

F, G-, a, b, c, d etc. 

If the compass of any Hexachord were exceeded, 
and another commenced, the tones belonging to the new 
Hexachord must be so designated that the syllable mi fa 
may coincide with the position of the semitone. 

For example, if you wished to self a the modern 
scales of F or G major, according to the mediaeval sys- 
tem you should proceed, thus: 

f g a^bb c d e / ~" s f g a b^ c d e fjf g. 
ut, re, mi, fa (sol) ut, re, mi, fa (sol) 

ut, re, mi, fa, ut, re, mi, fa. 

In this system of Mutation consisted the peculiar 
us of the so-called Guidonian hand. 

For a long time this difficult and complicated Gui- 
donian Solmisation or Solfisation, (according to Tinctoris) 
continued in use, until with the extension of the Tone- 
system below Gamma, and above ee, and the develop- 
ment of the system of the octave and of harmony, a new 
syllable Si was added to designate the seventh Tone of 
the succession. This syllable when it expressed B na- 
tural was written Si, when B flat, Sa or Za; and thus 
octave scales could be constructed without the mutation 
of syllables. 

II. As the Theory of music became still further de- 
veloped, the efforts to establish a fixed and adequate 


method of writing the sounds, in other words notation, 
were redoubled. All possible musical sounds may be 
reduced to, and classed under, seven principal or found- 
ation sounds. These seven sounds may be repeated as- 1 
cending or descending in regular alphabetical order, thus 

ABCDEFGabcdef gaa etc. 
la si Bo re mi fa sol la si Bo re mi fa sol la etc. 
I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. I. etc. 

each octave forming what is called a scale, (from scala, 
a ladder). Of these seven sounds, five are tones, and 
two are semi-tones; and every scale proceeding in this 
regular manner is called diatonic, 1 ) that is "by tones". 

From B to C, (Si-Bo), and from F to F (mi-fa) the 
distance or span is not so great, as from C to B (Bo-Be). 
Mi-Fa therefore and Si-Bo are called natural (also major) 
semitones. Bo-Be, Be-Mi, Fa-Sol, Sol-La, La-Si are five tones. 

OBSERVATION. These five whole tones may, as in 
modern music, be divided into ten chromatic or minor 
semitones by means of the so-called musical accidents; 
— the diesis or sharp represented thus jf; and the flat 
thus j?. The diesis or sharp raises the note to which it 
is prefixed, a (minor) semitone, and the note is then called 
c sharp. The >, Mmol or flat lowers the note a (minor) 
semitone, and it is then called B flat, supposing!) to be 
the note affected. These subdivisions of the scale are 
called chromatic, they are 12 in number, and a scale pro- 
ceeding through all of them is called a chromatic scale. 

Every whole tone is divisible into a major and minor 

semitone: ex. qrat. c — d =*= c-^-cjJ-^-d, or c-^-d|?-^-d. 

«? minor if major ' major Y minor 

The semitone was called by Plato Limma, 2 ) because im- 

*) jovog (from Teivsiv, to span), diaiovog is the name given by 
the Greeks to that scale which from the first note to its octave con- 
tains two half tones and five whole tones, consequently made up of 
the natural principal sounds, (see Definition of Gregorian Chant. 
Chap. 1 st .) 

2 ) "Semitonium a Platone Limma vocatum eo quod non sit plenus 
tonus sed imperfectus, neque dimidium toni, non enim in duas sequas 


perfect, and not dividing the tone into two equal parts; 
one part being greater than the other and called apotome 
or major semitone, the remaining part diesis or minor 
semitone. The whole tone is made up of 9 commas, of 
which 5 are found in apotome and 4 in diesis. Thus from 
C to D we have c— c sharp, — diesis or minor semitone, 
and c sharp — D, — apotome or major semitone. From 
G to F descending we have G — G flat, minor semitone, 
G flat — F apotome, or major semitone. This mathema- 
tically exact progression constitutes the enharmonic scale; 
but practically in modern music it exists only in name; 
as all semitones whether affected by flats, sharps or na- 
turals are considered equal intervals. This practice may 
perhaps be traced to the recently extended use of keyed 
instruments, organ, piano-forte or harmonium; in which, 
in order to facilitate modulation, a system of tuning is 
adopted, whereby the odd commas of the enharmonic 
progression, are distribued equally over the entire scale; 
and hence it is called the equal temperament system. 
The modern chromatic-enharmonic scale therefore is con- 
structed thus : *) 

-.11 ^ .^it ii ij. , i. . 


C 1 

! C # 

d( dfl 

e^f I 


s \ s# 

a i aS 







c 1 

1 di> 

d | et> 

e~f 1 


g 1 at? 

a I bb 




3. 4. 

5. 6. 


8. 9. 

10. 11. 


Plam Chant admits the diatonic or natural semitone, 
(mi-fa, si-do), and the limma or chromatic semitone in the 
single case of the interval from La to Sa or Za; but 
altogether excludes the diesis, and knows nothing of the 
enharmonic scale. The sign x (St. Andrew's cross) raises 
the note two minor semitones 8 / 9 , so that x F and g make 
almost the same impression on the ear; in like manner M? 
(double flat) lowers the note 8 / 9 of a whole tone, e. g. 
W?E=D. The sign jj (B quadratum) or natural removes 
the effect of the single jj or b, and restores the note to 
its natural condition. 

partes dividi potest, sed insequales tantum, quarum alter semitonium 
majus sen apotome, alter semitonium minus seu diesis, quae ab apotome 
snperatnr commate" Cottonius apnd Grerbert, II. 238. 

x ) On the various proposals made to improve Solmisation by the 
use of syllables, see my Preface to the Solfeggi of Bertalotti, second 
edition 1888. 


CHAPTER 6 th . 



"The Tones or Sounds of the scale work in with 
each other in six different ways, namely: as a fulltone, 
a semitone, a major third, a minor third, a fourth and a 
fifth. Other relations, so frequent in modern music, such 
as major and minor sixths, sevenths and octaves, if im- 
mediate and direct, are never to be met with in Plain 
Chant." *) 

An Interval is the distance in acuteness or gravity 
between one sound and another. Unison 2 ) therefore is 
not an interval. 

That sound which we take as first in counting is 
called a Prime. 

The distance from any given sound to the next ad- 
joining, is called the interval of a Second: as from A to 
B; — B to C or descending; A to G-, — G to F. There 
are two kinds of second; — the major second, comprising 
a full tone, as from C to D — (Do-Be), and the minor 
second, where the natural diatonic semitone occurs as 
from F to F — (Mi-Fa) or B% to C — (Si-Bo); or A 
to B flat — (La-Za). 

The distance from any sound to the third degree 
from it ascending or descending is an interval of a third; 
as: A-C : B-D : G-E : F-D. 

There are two kinds of thirds; major and minor. A 
major third includes two whole tones, as: 
C-F (Do-Mi); F-A (Fa-La); or descending B-G (Si-Sol). 

A minor third includes one tone and a semitone, as: 
G-Bflat (Sol-Za); A-C (La-Do) D-F (Re-Fa) B-D (Si-Be). 

x ) See P. U. Kornmiiller 1. c. p. 63. 

2 ) Unisonus quasi unus sonus; . . . non est modus neque cantus, 
quia cantus est inflexio vocis, i. e. omnis cantus qui inflectit vocem 
variat sonum. Ibid. p. 63. 


Anciently this twofold interval was called respectively 
Bitonus and Semiditonus. 

The interval which includes two tones and a major 
semitone is called & fourth; thus Do— Fa (G— F), i. e. tone, 
tone, and semitone; or La-Re (A-D), i. e. tone, semitone, 
tone; or Si-Mi (Bty-E), i. e. semitone, tone, tone. Its an- 
cient Grecian name was JDiatessaron. The interval known 
in modern music as the augmented fourth, including three 
full tones, as from Fa to Si (F to B natural) and called 
the Tritone, 1 ) is not allowed in Gregorian; and it is to 
obviate this that the b -flat is introduced; — the only 
accidental admitted in Plain- Chant. 

The Fifth, (ancient name Diapente) includes three 
full tones and a major semitone; as: D-A (Re-la) i. e. tone, 
semitone, tone, tone; or E-B^ (Mi-Si) [semitone, tone, tone, 
tone; or F-C (Fa-Do) tone, tone, tone, semitone; or G-D 
(Sol-Re) tone, tone, semitone, tone. This interval is called 
the perfect fifth; to distinguish it from what is known in 
modern music as the diminished or false fifth; consisting 
of two tones and two semitones, e. g. B^-F (Si-Fa). This 
is but the inversion of the objectionable tritone, and 
consequently the B must be lowered a semitone and so 
made to constitute a perfect fifth. 

The Octave (Diapason) includes five whole tones and 
two semitones, that is to say the entire scale. Hie ca- 
nendi modus rarissime in cantu usitatus reperitur, writes 
Engelbert in the 13 th century. It is met with only twice 
in the Choral Books, in the solemn Be missa est, and in 
the Amen of one of the melodies of the Credo; but in 
the latter instance the Octave is separated from the first 
of the scale by a breathing space. As already observed 
sixths or sevenths are sometimes met with but having a 

*) "Tritonus, constans tribus continuis tonis, diatessaron non repu- 
tatur" Guido of Arezzo. 


connecting note between. For example, re-la-si (tonus cum 
diapente); re-la-sib (semitonium cum diapente); re-la-do 
(semiditonus cum diapente). 

CHAPTER 7 th . 

I. The notes now used in Plain Chant are signs 
which by their shape indicate the relative duration of the 
sounds, and by their position the names of the sounds 
and their respective acuteness or gravity. 

1 st . Shape. John Guidetti distinguishes three shapes 
of notes which are now also employed in the authentic 
choral books, namely a), longa i. e. long (note) ; it is used 
either to indicate an accented syllable, or to initiate or 
end a connected group of two, three, or more ascending 
or descending notes. As the accents in speech are not 
all equally long or strong, so neither are the longa nor 
the, b), brevis (short note). The time value of this note 
is regulated by the greater or lesser length of the syl- 
lables with which it may be united, and sometimes 
approaches the long a y sometimes the semibrevis; c) semi- 
brevis is about half of the brevis. 1 ) In none of these 
three forms is there any fixed or regular measure of time. 

*) In the Medicsean edition of the Graduate Romanum the brevis 
is placed over short unaccented syllables having bnt one note to 

each syllable as ~ n M L whilst other editions, ♦ W ♦ E| 8= 

for example ' = especially that of Gtai- ' = 

o-ra-ti- 6-nem detti, wrote o-ra-ti-6-nem. 

The semibrevis is never alone, not even over a short syllable bnt only in 

descending groups of notes, e. g. §g zS g Bgg fc -fp. Printed copies 

of the 16 th century are to be met with where single -noted syllables 
always have the ^ (longa). The notion that good accentuation and 
correct declamation are facilitated when the longa is employed for ac- 
cented syllables, the brevis for short syllables and the semibrevis for 
still shorter syllables is not without good foundation. The commission 
for publishing the official Choral books however finally determined in 


OBSERVATION. Up to the 11 th century, Plain Chant 
was usually taught by oral tradition, and the signs then 
usually employed under the name of neuntes (vzv^ia sign, 
or nvevf.La breathing) served for little more than to recall 
to memory an already well-known melody and especially 
indicate its proper rendering. The letters of the alphabet 
served for theoretical instruction, the newnes for already 
well practised singers and are called on that account 
notce usuales, notes, whose importance the scholars should 
learn from custom and tradition. 

2 nd . Position. In order to bring more readily before 
the eye the names of the notes, Plain Chant writers 
usually adopted a stave of four lines, later and much 
more seldom one also of five lines. The notes are placed 
on, over or under the lines and in the spaces between. 

If in the following example we call the first note c, 
the names of the other notes placed in regular succession 
on the lines and spaces can be given without difficulty. 

cde fgabt|C 

ut re mi fa sol la si ut 

In case the melody should extend higher or lower 
than what may be contained within the four lines and 
spaces, then recourse is had to what are called ledger 

lines; thus 

la a 

=== or 


OBSERVATION 1 st . The traditional character of 
the old notation is so worthy of respect, and its em- 
ployment in the liturgical books has been so steadfastly 
maintained for centuries, that to change it into modern 

1883 to employ for single notes to syllables either the H or *(, and 
the ♦ never alone but only in descending groups as in the Medicsean 


notation seems neither necessary, useful, nor advisable. 
Four lines and three species of notes are amply sufficient, j 
Frequently it has been proposed and in some places the 
proposal has been acted upon, to convert the Gregorian 
into modern notation, and so facilitate its being taught to 
the masses; but it should be remembered that the , -J 
and j of modern notation, are tied down to a fixed mea- 
sured time, whilst it has been proved by experience that 
singers when exercised on the four line stave, acquire more 
speedily a correct knowledge of the intervals, than when 
using five; and in groupings of several notes ascending 
or descending, the united smooth rendering thereof is 
rendered much easier and more comfortable to the eye 
by the employment of the| thick "Hack" notes than by 
the open "white" notes. 

Nevertheless this system is not to be universally 
condemned, and those singers and Church Choirs who 
would rather abandon Plain Chant altogether than take 
the trouble of learning the Gregorian notation, may be 
permitted to adopt a translation of it into modern no- 
tation, especially if in such editions care is taken to 
mark the note-groupings of the original by binds or ties. 
The following excuses for this proceeding may be held 
valid: 1 st the need or desire of insufficiently instructed 
Choirs, who however are well acquainted with the use 
of the modern G (violin) clef: — 2 nd the now common 
practice of writing the Gregorian melodies in modern 
notation in the actual written accompaniments ; 3 dly the 
decision arrived at by the Pontifical Commission in 1883, 
of adopting only three forms of notes; ^, N, and ♦, which 
can be fairly substituted by the modern forms, , <J ? 
and j, provided that the singers study to preserve the 
free rhythm of the Choral Chant. 

To mark the note-groupings over the separate syl- 
lables the modern "tie" or ligatura will serve very aptly 
as for example: 



Ky - ri - e e - le - ison. 


S— ^j-j? ^^ — ^ = ^F I ä~ — esF^^FEJ — d 1 ^" 1 ^ ^—- : = 
Ky - - ri - e e - - - le - ison. 

OBSERVATION 2 nd . The neumm 1 ) have been men- 
tioned as the notation in use previous to the invention 
and adoption of the form of notes just explained. The 
different forms and names of these neumes may be seen 
in the appendix at the end of this manual. They consist 
of points, little hooks, strokes and flourishes, which by 
their shape and position discharged the same service 
which now falls to our present note-system. The formula 
of the neumatic notation can be reduced to certain fun- 
damental forms which are still in use and indicate the 
manner of delivery rather than the exact reading of the 
melody. They consist of the acute, the grave and the 
circumflex accent marks , and seem to have been ori- 
ginally a system of stenographic directions for declamation 
and pronunciation, and the raising or lowering of the 
voice. These most employed are the: Punctum, Virga, 
Podatus, 2 ) Clivis, 3 ) Torculus, Porrectus, Scandicus, and 

Other note signs, such as, Stropliicus, Ancus, Oriscus, 
Quilisma, Pressus, were adapted to very well trained 

*) All researches concerning the neumes have more historical than 
practical value, and archaeological science has yet a great deal to do 
before all the necessary light can be thrown on these quaint signs. 
There is a learned treatment of them in Pothier's celebrated work Les 
melodies Gregoriennes, from which the neuma tables at the end of this 
book are taken. See also upon the Paleographie musicale, the article 
of P. U. Kornmüller in the K.-M. Jahrbuch 1890, as well as the post- 
humous work of Th. Nisard, Earcheologie musicale et le vrai chant 
Gregorien. Paris, Lethielleux. 

2 ) The Roman Commission on the 1 st Dec. 1883, fixed as normal the 
form ijfl, when an accented syllable is under it and when the note 
following is on the same degree of the scale or lower than the last 
of the podaias. If however the following note is higher, or the 
group is placed over a short unaccented syllable then it is written 
thus h*. 

3 ) The note groupings =^l=5= °f tne Medicsean edition of 1614, 

and which also found their way into first the Folio official edition are 

only abbreviated forms of =ic=P= etc. 

Magister Choralis. O 


singers, and seldom are effective even when well executed,! 
The natural declamation and gravity of the melody do 
not need these affected mannerisms. 1 ) 

These note-groupings constitute, in a certain sense,, 
the elements of Gregorian Chant, just as words are the 
elements of speech, and the beauty of the melody prin- 
cipally depends on their judicious alternation. 

When in the 12 th century the neumatic writing com- 
menced to glide into the square or horse-shoe shape of 
notation, these old forms gradually disappeared, nothing 
remaining but the signs *|, W and ♦, which even up to 
the 15 th century were also employed in measured music. 
In the Vatican Library there is a valuable manuscript 
of the 15 th century (catalogued 5129, fol. 169) of con- 
siderable historical importance with reference to neumatic 
notation. A certain Peter Talhanderius, a Frenchman 
by birth (according to Fetis) complains that the choral 
books are elegantly but not correctly transcribed; ob- 
serving: a) that the Caudata 1, whether alone or grouped 
with other notes should be employed only for accented 
syllables, except in the form of a Clivis \. b) The Semi- 
brevis ♦ should never be used alone but only in descend- 
ing groups in union with *| or H, and then only in a 
group of not more than four notes. These and similar 
useful observations for breathing and pauses in the 
longer note-groupings do not appear to have been un- 
known to the transcriber of the editio Medicma, and 
were subsequently adopted by the Pontifical commission 
in order to employ an uniform system in the official 

OBSERVATION 3 d . The word neuma after the 
11 th century was also used to describe a melodic sequence 
of several notes to be sung all to the one syllable or 
vowel. John Tinctoris observes; "Neuma is a song or 
Chant which hangs on to the end of a word, without a 

x ) Gerbert, Scriptores, Vol. I. pag. 5. The Instituta Patrum which 
date from before Isidor of Seville (ob. 636) give this direction: "Ca- 

veamus ne neumas conjunctas nimia morositate . . . vel disjunctas inejpta 
velocitate conjungamus. — Scire debet omnis Cantor quod literce quce lique- 
scunt in metrica arte, etiam in neumis musicce artis liquescunt." 


word." Such neumas are constantly met with in the 
Graduate with the Alleluias which follow, in the Tracts, 
in the chant for the versicle after the Hymn and else- 

II. Four or five lines of a stave do not suffice for 
placing all the notes within the compass of the human 
race; moreover no one of the seven tones had obtained 
is yet any fixed place on the stave, from which all higher 
ind lower tones might be counted. 

In the 11 th century they used two lines as Clefs. The 
lotes were placed on them, or over, or under or between 
;hem. A red line denoted F, and a yellow (also green) 
ine denoted C. 1 ) Later the letters F and C were pre- 
ixed to the coloured lines and between them other lines 
vere punctured on the parchment. Soon the difference of 
colour was abandoned, and all clef lines were coloured red. 
From the Gothic form of the letter F, the sign ib was 
onstructed, and from the Gothic C, the sign j^, as still 
[at er from the Gothic G the modern Violin Clef f$~i\ 
?rew up. (See Tables in the Appendix.) MP—' 

In Gregorian Chant there are employed only two Clefs, 
the C or Do clef = b, 
the F or Fa clef — 1]%: 
and in the official Choral books these are used in five 
different positions, 

All notes placed on the line where the Bo clef is 
found are called Do; and where the Fa clef, Fa. 

The other notes on the lines and spaces can easily 
be named, once we have this key; thus: 

x ) In manuscripts with red, yellow and green lines the last men- 
tioned is generally uppermost and marks f, whilst the yellow marks c, 
and the red F [in the lower octave]. All fix the position of the 



c G 

i — 

b a 









F E D a b 

D A C A r 

If the Choral melody have such a compass that the 
four line stave will not contain it, then the clef is moved 
a line higher or lower, or the Fa clef is exchanged for 
the Bo clef or vice versa, thus: 


mi - se - re - re no - bis. 


mi -hi. Si quis etc. 

Qui tol - lis etc. 

The little sign like a note ■ 




found at the end of lines, and before a change of clef, 
if such occur in the middle of a line, is used to indicate 
the succeeding note; and is therefore called a custos, 
watchman, guide or direct 

OBSERVATION. It must be admitted that an im- 
portant step has been taken in the official editions to- 
wards improving the delivery of the Chant by noting the 
accented syllables only with a longa, % Moreover in these 
editions all changes of clef, as far as possible, are avoided, 
and it is a fixed rule never to employ a ledger line above 
the stave though occasionally one may be employed below. 
Guido in his Micrologics (Gerbert, Scriptores. Vol. II. p. 37.) 
writes "Quomodo auiem liquescant voces, et an adhcerentur 
vel discrete sonant, quceve sint morosce et tremulce, et suhi- 
tanece, vel quomodo cantilena distinctionibus dividatur, et 
an vox sequens ad prcecedentem gravior, vel acutior, vel 
cequisona sit, facili colloquio in ipsa neumarum figura mon- 
stratur, si, ut debent, ex industria componantur." 


If Guido had taken the trouble of leaving these rules 
in writing instead of delivering them viva voce, there 
would not have arisen so many different opinions con- 
cerning the singing of Plain Chant: since everybody fol- 
lows his own taste and the custom of his country. The 
present notation of the authentic choral books if attent- 
ively noticed, gives us excellent rules both for the correct 
accent of the words, and the alternation of quicker and 
slower methods of execution. On the other hand however 
it must be borne in mind that no method of musical 
writing will ever be capable of representing perfectly and 
of itself alone, the movement, life, and peculiar proper- 
ties of the Gregorian melodies. 

CHAPTER 8 th . 

I. Movement regularly varied according to some fixed 
rule is called Bhythm, or measure; even measure as well 
as equal measure. Musical rhythm is verified when one 
tone is prolonged more or less than another, and sung 
with greater or lesser force. We have artificial [or poetical] 
rhythm in the various metres of Poetry, and natural 
rhythm in the speeches of Prose. 

All the human senses are influenced by rhythm. The 
ear especially becomes wearied and resents a long sequence 
of sounds of equal force and duration. A succession of 
weak and strong syllables and their combination as a 
whole by means of accent constitutes the beauty of speech. 
In Plain Chant, Rhythm is intimately bound up with the 
language, and the regular cadence of the latter must be 
shared by the Gregorian melody. The musical melodies 
are as it were constructed on the melody of the language 
itself, — the language being simply clothed in musical 
sounds; so that the fundamental rule for understanding 
Gregorian melody and singing it effectively is: — "Sing 
the words with notes, as you would speak them 


without notes." The natural rhythm of spoken language 
is therefore the fundamental rule for the rendering of 
Plain Chant. The even measure (not equal measure) which 
is observed in a well-delivered speech, the natural melody 
of speech in undetermined tones must in the practice of 
the Chant be transferred to fixed Tone-intervals. 

One of the first requisites therefore for good singing 
of Gregorian Chant, is a knowledge of the Latin tongue, 
of its peculiarities, its prosody, its scansion; in a word 
Gregorian Chant demands "faultless, clear, scientific pro- 
nunciation and declamation." 

When a syllable is rendered prominent by an in- 
tensified and emphatic effort of the voice it is said to 
be accented. This accent has a great duty to perform in 
Gregorian. Through the proper use of it, the main 
features of the melody are distinguished from the less 
important, and words or syllables of consequence are 
conspicuously brought to the front. 

Here it must be borne in mind that it is not the 
number of notes placed over a syllable, that makes the 
syllable unaccented or accented, but rather their stronger 
or weaker intonation. Hence we often find in such words 
as Dominus, quite a group of notes over the short syl- 
lable mi, and but one or two perhaps over the accented 
syllable Do. In this and similar instances the group of 
notes over the short syllable, should be sung quickly but 
smoothly and with a depression of the voice; while the 
single note (if there be but one) over the syllable Do 
should be delivered with emphasis and power. From 
what has been said we may gather how faulty is that 
method of singing which measures out to each note and 
syllable equal time-value (Isotony or cequalitas cantilence). 
The ear is offended with the speaker who would recite 
the syllables and words of his speech with equal speed or 


sluggishness, and experience proves that nothing is so 
tiresome to listen to as monotonous, isotonous chant. 

OBSERVATION. Hitherto we have spoken of rhythm 
as even measure, but it may also be considered as mathe- 
matically equal measure. A certain note of fixed (time) 
value is taken as a standard of unity, which may be 
divided and subdivided; and in all those divisions and 
subdivisions the value of this unit must be fully ex- 
pressed. E.g. = dJ=JJJJor|s| = 00 = -U i-J 
pJJJJJJJ'J- These time-sections are now indicated 
by short perpendicular lines drawn across the stave called 
Bars. This is the system of Time in modern music. The 
Harmonists of the middle ages used no bars (i. e. per- 
pendicular lines). With them the duration of the notes 
was well determined by the form of the notes but with- 
out bar lines, so that the melodic outlines were more 
easily recognised and the right accentuation of the words 
less interfered with. From the fact that measured music *) 
is of much later date than Plain Chant it is evident how 
unreasonable and unscientific it would be to tie down 
the free rhythm of Plain Chant in the fetters of strictly 
measured Time Bars. So that in Gregorian we have no 
measured time and no Bars, in the modern sense. 

II. Rhythmical progression essentially requires Pau- 
ses, and both the physical and mental powers of the 
singer demand time to gather fresh strength (to take 

In even measured Rhythm such as we have in Plain- 
Chant, the Pauses are partly left to the feeling or just 
discretion of the singer, (never to caprice or necessity, 
from want of breath); but the meaning of the phrase 
should never be altered by the Pauses, nor the word so 
broken up that it becomes difficult to the hearer to join 
together its constituent syllables, neither should breath 
be taken immediately before a syllable in the middle of a 
word. Generally speaking the Pauses or places for tak- 

x ) Cantus mensiirabilis. Franco of Cologne. 


ing breath are marked in the ritual Books, 1 ) as follows: 
1) =3=1= is either a breathing mark, useful especially in- 
large choirs where there are many singers, in order that 
all may begin and end the words together; or it serves- 
to divide the phrase into members and sections. 2 ) 2) This 
last object is more generally attained by the simple per- 
pendicular line drawn right across the stave, thus =P=; 
which also marks off the melodic and rhythmical mem- 
bers of a musical phrase. This mark is never to be 
confounded with the bar in modern music, there being 
no measured time in Gregorian and consequently no time 
bars. 3) ==§= This, the double bar, is the sign used to 
denote the close or termination both of the intonation 
and of the entire phrase or section. 3 ) 

If an unusual number of notes in a neuma is divided 
into two or three sections by a separation of the notes- 
and without being indicated by the breathing marks i 
or I, the shortest pause is to be made between each 
section, just enough in more numerous choirs to keep the 
voices together and enable them to grasp more firmly the 
melodic phrase and rhythmical division. Let the following 
rule for the Pauses be observed: "According to the sense 
of the words, or the sentiment, or the solemnity of the 
occasion, or the number of the persons present, or the 
dimensions and acoustic properties of the place where 
Gregorian is to be sung, the Pauses must be of varied 
duration; they must always be natural, and should never 
be mathematically timed. 1 ' Pauses are in singing, what 
the comma, semi-colon, colon and full-stop are in reading.. 

*) The Folio edition of the Grad. Bohl has only the perpendicular 
lines (N°. 2) as breathing marks , but it is understood that at every 
punctuation mark in the Text breath should be taken. 

' 2 ) In the Octavo edition of the Grad. Eom. these pauses are more 
than sufficiently indicated. 

3 ) In Introits, and Antiphons this sign marks off the portion to 
be intoned (the first word or two). 


OBSERVATION. In the most recent editions of the 
Roman Choral Books, the breathings and phrasings are 
so fully indicated that well trained singers can without 
difficulty dispense with any further pauses. It remains 
however for the conductor to determine other points of 
rest, in long groups of notes such for instance as in the 
Alleluja neumes, if he thinks it necessary. 

CHAPTER 9 th . 


I. To fully acquire the art of singing, and the correct 
management of the voice, a competent master is necessary, 
and constant practice of solfeggios &c. However a few 
theoretical rules may be^ here given, which if carefully 
applied will render material service. 

[OBSERVATION. The human voice may be said to 
belong to that class of musical instruments called reeds, 
in which a current of air is employed to throw a tongue, 
or the edges of a membrane into vibration. Take for 
example a trumpet. 1 ) The reed, or vibrating portion of 
the trumpet, is formed by the lips of the player, which 
are tightly pressed against the mouth -piece of the in- 
strument, and formed into a narrow slit; through which 
slit the air is blown from the mouth, setting its edges 
in vibration in its course. The tube of the trumpet only 
serves to modify and give character to the sounds gene- 
rated by the lips; — and the sound which they produce 
is raised in pitch by narrowing and shortening the aper- 
ture between them, or by increasing the tension of the 
edges of the slit. Now just such an instrument is the 
human voice. It consists of four parts, which we will 
arrange in the order in which they exist, placed one over 
another: — thus: 

*) Though we select a trumpet as an example of a reed, we are 
aware that it is not classed amongst reed instruments, but the manner 
of blowing it is quite similar to the manner in which a reed is set in 



{a cavity to modify and vary the character of the sounds as the tube 

in the trumpet), 


(whose vibration produces sound), 

CD 2 <^ 


Bellows or wind chest 
(to hold air, and force it through the windpipe). 

To commence with the lowermost part. In the wind- 
chest, — commonly called the lungs, we have a provision 
for three things, — viz: first, for holding a good supply 
of air, i. e. breath; secondly, for sending it upwards with 
proper force; and thirdly for the chest itself to act as a 
sounding -board to the voice, and make it reverberate 
more loudly. The next part of the apparatus is the wind- 
pipe, or air-tube, a thing of beautiful mechanism, elastic, 
so that it can be made longer or shorter, and furnished 
moreover with a contrivance for increasing or decreasing 
its diameter. Immediately above the windpipe we meet 
the reed, called by anatomists the larynx, or organ of 
the voice. Its framework is composed of five principal 
cartilages, which are capable of being moved on each 
other in various directions by muscles, so as to act upon 
two elastic cords, or little strings of highly elastic tissue, 
one on either side, passing from the front to the back of 
the tube, and enveloped by the membrane which lines it. 

They are called the vocal ligaments, or vocal cords 
and it is only this portion of the larynx, which forms 
the reed, generating the voice. The aperture between 
this little strings, allowing the air to pass from the lungs, 
is called the glottis. It opens into a small cavity which 
serves all the purpose of the mouth piece of a trumpet, 
giving the little strings room to vibrate freely; and this 
cavity is terminated above by another pair of cords or 


strings, not quite so elastic, and more apart from each 
other than the inferior pair. They are called by ana- 
tomists the false vocal cords, but have no share whatever 
in the production of the voice. 

Now when we are merely breathing quietly, these 
true vocal cords lie back, and do not interrupt the current 
of air that is always passing upwards and downwards 
between them; but when we begin to speak, and still 
more when we begin to sing, these vocal cords are brought 
near together, so as to narrow the air passage or glottis 
into a slit; they are tightened by the action of the sur- 
rounding muscles; and the air breathed upwards from 
the lungs, being obstructed by this narrow slit, throws 
the edges of it into vibration, and this vibration we 
recognise as the human voice. 

The other portions of the throat and mouth, the uvula, 
the palate, the walls of the mouth, the tongue, the teeth 
and the lips do good service in modifying and improving 
the quality of the tone, and are essential for articulation; 
but the voice itself is produced by the simple but beautiful 
mechanism which we have just attempted to describe. 
The strength or power of a voice depends not only on 
the dimensions or muscular activity of the larynx but 
much more on the easy working of the lungs and breath- 
ing organs; whilst the cavities of the mouth and nose 
also contribute to its resonance. The acuteness or gravity 
of a voice is regulated by the size of the larynx, which 
is larger and wider in deep voices. The good quality of 
the voice, depends on the symmetrical, well-arched con- 
struction of the organs that serve to produce it; and its 
flexibility on the general healthiness of the larynx and 
elasticity of its muscles.] 

1) To sing with power we must have a copious 
supply of air — breath — always ready at hand. The 
chest and the muscles below it should be kept well equal 
to action, and guarded against anything that would pre- 
vent their freedom of motion. The drawing in of the 
breath should be quick, the breathing it forth slow and 
without violence. Special breathing exercises should be 
made before singing is attempted. The throat should not 


be tightly muffled, the head should be kept erect, not 
thrown back nor yet bent forward. Constant singing in 
a sitting position injures the voice. 

2) A full, clear, metallic tone, depends principally 
on good physical organization, nevertheless, a tiny voice 
may be much improved, by a judicious management of 
the breath, and a low position of the larynx. 

3) The so-called guttural tone, or singing from the 
upper part of the throat, arises from the tongue being 
drawn upwards and backwards; or from the voice being 
exercised too soon, and too vehemently on the higher 
notes of the scale; in either case, the current of air pro- 
ceeding from the lungs does not pass out freely through 
the opening of the mouth, but is retained in the roof 
or cavities thereof. 

4) In low notes many persons violently press down 
the larynx, so that the air passage, or windpipe sensibly 
quivers, and produces what the Germans call Gurgelton. 
Facility in low notes depends exclusively on the greater 
diameter of the larynx. No one should try to sing them 
if he cannot do so with ease, nor needlessly force the 
available tones of his voice; otherwise harshness of voice, 
and serious detriment to its metallic timbre, power and 
firmness, will be the undesirable results. It is an equally 
bad mistake to raise the larynx when singing high notes. 

5) The closing up of the nostrils gives the voice a 
peculiar tivang, called the Nasal sound; although the fault, 
is not that we then sing through the nose, but that the 
nasal exit for the voice is closed up. 

6) To open the mouth too widely is another fault. 
On the other hand the mouth should be well open and 
freely open; just so much as to allow the index-finger, 
or at most the thumb to fit between the two rows of teeth. 

7) The use of the head voice (Falsetto) is very fa- 
tiguing, and if continued for any length of time injures 


the voice organs. The chest voice is the most natural, 
and sufficiently extensive in its compass. 

[OBSERVATION. The average compass of the voice 
is two octaves, 15 notes, but in different parts of the 
scale in different persons; neither are those 15 notes on 
any one voice equal in quality or power. In the average 
voices of men there is a middle or mean compass, of 
about 8 notes, which come easily, and can be sung and 
rolled out round and clear; above these follow closely the 
high notes, which require a greater effort and more breath- 
ing power, and sound sharp and shrill; under the middle 
voice come the low notes which are deep and propor- 
tionately toneless (klanglos), except with deep contralti and 
bassi profondi. In men's voices we often meet with in- 
stances, where when the voice has been raised to a cer- 
tain height, at which it is felt that the production of tone 
requires considerable effort, a change suddenly occurs; 
and they can go on with less effort producing a new and 
higher series of notes, of new and peculiar character. 
This is called falsetto or head voice, in contradistinction 
to the natural chest voice. 

By these appellations however we are not to under- 
stand that one kind of tone is produced in the chest and 
the other in the head. Both kinds are produced by the 
reed; the difference being that in the fuller notes of the 
chest voice, the whole substance which bounds the slit 
vibrates; while it is only the thinnest possible edge that 
vibrates in the falsetto. These falsetto notes are very 
unlike the chest notes either in power or quality, if un- 
cultivated they sound wailing and effeminate, and it is 
only by constant culture they can be brought to resemble 
in strength or character the other tones of the voice, so 
that the use of it is not to be encouraged. These different 
stages of the compass of average voices are called Registers, 
Chest, Middle, and Falsetto Register respectively; and great 
attention should be paid to the producing of those notes 
where the transition from one register of the voice to an- 
other occurs, so as to render this transition as easy as pos- 
sible and equalize the voice throughout its entire compass.] 

8) The binding of two notes must be so accomplished, 
that one can be clearly distinguished from the other, and 


yet no gap or break appear between them. This is called 
portando la voce. The immediate progression of several 
notes presupposes a proportionate supply of breath. To 
begin the sound gently, and then with increasing power 
continue up to the degree of strength which can be at- 
tained without unnatural effort, and on the return or 
descending journey allow the voice gradually to cease 
sounding, strengthens and consolidates the voice, and 
endows it with the desirable facility of singing loud or 
soft, piano or forte on each degree of its natural compass. 

9) In singing two notes successively (especially if it 
be a distant interval) according to the method so-called 
of "Portamento di voce"] that bad habit of dwelling on 
all or most of the intervening tones should be carefully 
avoided. Affectation and vulgar mannerisms are easily 
detected in this method of singing. Good singing demands 
a certain mobility and elasticity of Tone, but this is 
very different from the sliding or howling we have just 
adverted to. 

10) When the voice commences to change or crack, 
(in boys) all attempts at singing must be laid aside for 
a few months, and then only by degrees and cautiously 
a few exercises in the new voice may be essayed, 
until the organ of the voice gets strong and attains a 
sufficient degree of firmness. "The old fashioned notion 
that from Soprani come Bass voices, and from Alti, 
Tenors, has already produced a multitude of harsh rough 
Basses, and disagreeable Tenors." 1 ) 

[OBSERVATION. The voices of boys resemble very 
nearly those of women, but in males a remarkable change 
takes place at puberty, when the voice is said to crack. 
The change from the shrill treble of the boy, to the fuller 
and rounder tone of the man is sometimes perfected al- 
most suddenly; but in most cases it is for sometime in 

*) A. B. Marx. Die Musik des 19. Jahrhunderts. 


progress, wavering between the two extremes, deep and 
manly during quiet enunciation, but when any exertion 
is used, suddenly starting up again to the shrill tones of 
boyhood. This change occurs generally about the 16 th or 
17 th year, sometimes earlier; and many are of opinion 
that boys so affected should abstain from singing for two 
or more years. Certain it is that the greatest precaution 
should be adopted, if the voice is to be preserved.] 

11) By continued exercise a very weak voice may be 
strengthened, and a limited compass or uncertain intona- 
tion be extended and secured. Easy and judicious vocal 
exercises even if practised daily will not injure the voice 
but build it up, and give flexibility, persistance and power. 
"Men's throats are like fire-arms; they are good and 
in use as long as they are kept polished; otherwise they 
become rusty." l ) 

[12) With regard to the care of the voice, it may be 
observed. 1 st . When singing. Any voice is improved by 
moderate and well ordered energy, and weakened by ir- 
regular singing, and too much forcing. You should never 
sing so as to be completely fatigued. Those notes which 
require an effort should be touched very seldom. One 
should never sing when in a great heat, or after much 
fatigue, nor immediately after eating, nor in an over- 
heated or too cold apartment. Should the voice organs 
be unhealthy, or suffering from inflammation, catarrh, or 
cough &c; then the person so affected should not attempt 
to sing. The same remark applies to boys when their 
voices commence to change. 

2 nd . When not singing. We should be always mode- 
rate in eating and drinking; excess in the last mentioned 
particular is very injurious to the voice; avoid fatty 
meats, oily substances, all strong spirituous drinks, and 
pungent spices. Too much snuff-taking leaves it toneless 

*) Mattheson in his Patriot. Hamburgh 1728. Page 84. 


and without resonance. The singer should be warmly 
clothed, yet not overclad, and avoid great extremes of 
temperature. Draughts of cold air, North and East winds 
injuriously affect the voice. Playing wind instruments, 
should be avoided. They tighten the chest, and rob the 
voice of a great part of its power.] 

CHAPTER 10 th . j 


[I. Take a tuning fork; make it vibrate by a gentle 
tap; then press the end firmly against a table, against a 
whole pane of glass, against a cracked pane, against a 
book, in succession. Notice that the tone derives a dif- 
ference in character from each of these substances which 
it sets vibrating along with it. This experiment will suf- 
fice to show that the quality, (or as it is technically 
called the timbre) of the voice, is modified and varied 
by every change in the shape, size, quality, and degree 
ef elasticity of those parts which are connected with it, 
and which vibrate along with it. So that we cannot 
make any alteration whatever in the mouth or features 
without producing some corresponding change in the 
voice. 1 ) But pure tone must be formed in the larynx, 
and not in the upper parts of the throat, as is too com- 
monly done. To acquire purity and steadiness of tone, 
vocalization is absolutely necessary, and constant exercise 
in the same; i. e. sounding up and down the notes of 
the diatonic scale, to each of the five vowels A E I U. 
The first and most important exercise in vocalization is 
to produce the vowel A clear and steady on each degree 
of the scale. Stand upright, with the head held up in 
an easy attitude; — fill the lungs; — let the jaw drop 

x ) Of course the natural form or shape of the mouth will modify 
the tone. 


and the tongue lie as flat and motionless as possible. 
Keep the lips away from the teeth, and the corners of 
the mouth open. Then vocalize; i. e. sound the vowel A; 
— (pronounced ah as in Father, charm, and such words). 
The mouth should be moderately open, not too much so, 
which would have the effect of throwing the tongue too 
much forward, and thereby depriving the larynx of that 
support to its muscles, which is naturally given by the 
back of the tongue being held against it, and the tone 
losing firmness, becomes cracked and tremulous. All the 
notes of the scale should be sounded to this vowel, care 
being taken to breathe after each note, and not to change 
the posture of the body nor move the features, lips, or 
jaws, in the least. The only parts that are to move, are 
the edges of the vocal aperture, and other parts in the 
larynx, which gradually become tighter and tighter, as 
the sound rises in pitch. This exercise should be fre- 
quently employed as it ensures the production of pure 
tone. "By this open vowel," writes Herr Nauenburgh 
u the position of the mouth and tongue is at once regu- 
lated, the tone comes out instantaneously, without foreign 
admixture, and strikes on the right place in the cavity 
of the mouth." *) It is the most easily produced, and 
the parent of all the other vowel sounds; the other 
vowel sounds being produced in fact, by making the 
mouth more narrow than it is whilst A is being uttered. 
Then for the 2 nd vowel, bring the lips together into 
a transverse slit, and let the tip of the tongue touch the 
base of the under row of teeth, and you produce the 
sound of E : — pronounced as a in baby, or fate. Go up 
and down on this vowel, as when sounding A ; here again 
being careful to preserve the positions of the mouth and 
features once they are fixed. In Exercise N°. 3, you 

x ) "Daily Sing-Studies for all Voices". Breitkopf & Härtel, Leipsic. 

Magister Choralis. 4: 


contract the transverse slit of the lips still more, and 
let the tip of the tongue touch, no longer the base, but 
the upper edge of the same under row of teeth, and you 
produce I; pronounced as ee in Bee. This vowel in the 
upper notes of the scale easily becomes shrill and 
piercing (spitz). *) 

For N° 4 you bring the mouth into a decided oval 
shape, with the lips braced, resembling the shape of the 
vowel itself 0; and you sound 0. Practice on the vowel 7 
enriches the tone, and throws the voice forward. Lastly, 
contract the aperture of the lips rather more, diminish 
their tension by raising the lower jaw slightly, push them 
forward and then open, and you have the 5 th vowel U, 
sounded as double oo in goose. 

OBSERVATION. We here give the simple vowel 
sound. The english method of sounding this vowel, as 
in you, is diphthongal, and may be divided, if sounded 
slowly, into e-u. The simple sound as in soon, is much 
preferable. In Latin it is universally adopted, (if we 
except perhaps in France) and it will tend to eliminate 
that vulgarity in pronunciation, with which our ears are 
painfully familiarized. 

In vocalizing therefore, A is the parent sound, most 
naturally and most easily produced. E and I are found 
by contracting the aperture of the mouth transversely: 
and U, by contracting it circularly. In each of these 
cases however there is one and the same sound produced 
in the larynx; it only becomes altered in its passage out 
of the mouth. This can be proved by sounding the five 
vowels , one after the other , and without taking breath ; 
which may be best done in the following order: I E A 
U. In this experiment the throat remains unaltered 

*) In sounding the lower notes to this vowel, more tone is pro- 
cured by allowing: the tongue to assume a concave form like the hollow 
of a spoon. 


whilst the mouth changes its shape. When singing up or 
down the scale to any one vowel, the mouth remains un- 
altered, whilst the throat keeps moving, tightening or 
relaxing according as we ascend or descend the scale. 1 ) 
Before quitting the subject of vowel sounds, it be- 
comes most necessary to caution students at the outset 
against the pernicious habit of aspirating vowels; i. e. 
putting an h before them. Nothing can be more bar- 
barous than when singing Amen to a group of notes, to 
sing it as if it were written A-me-hen. 

II. The sounds of articulate speech, are, as all must 
know, divided into vowels, and consonants. Vowels are 
the open sounds, and produced as we have just seen, 
when the mouth is open more or less. Consonants are 
produced by interrupting the vowel sounds, at some part 
or other of their passage outwards. Voivel sounds there- 
fore may be sustained as long as you like, as long as 
your breath holds out ; consonants on the contrary, should 
be pronounced decidedly and clearly, but as quickly as 
possible. Therefore when singing, never dwell upon a 
consonant; — sing the voivel, dwell on it, and bite it off, 
as it were, with the consonant. It is only that tone 
which proceeds straight outwards from the throat, which 
is at all musical. Such is the tone of the vowels. Those 
sounds, on the contrary, which are produced by closing 
any part of the mouth, (as in the case of consonants, 
which are mere interruptions to tone,) are unmusical. 
They are hissings, or explosions, or vibrations of the 
tongue, necessary enough to separate the vowels one 
from another, but in themselves destitute of musical 
quality, and most unpleasant to the ear. Therefore again, 

*) Padre Martini Yol. 3. Page 432. quoting from Vossius sags "esser 
vasta e sonora la vocale A, grave ed elegante VE, debole VI, vasta la 
lettera , e con qualche ragione magnifica; le due vocali 1 e II si fanno 
di per se stesse conoscere, oscure, e di suon bujo." 



when singing any syllable to any note, and especially 
any long note, single out the vowel, and sing on it. Let 
the consonant be heard, by all means, at the beginning 
or at the end as the case may be, but do not dwell on it. 
Too often we hear the word Kyrie sung, as if it were 
written Ky-ur-ri-e; and Miserere, as if it were Mi-se-re- 
ir-re. Another bad habit is that of putting a consonant 
where it does not exist, or where there is no need what- 
ever for it. Thus we sometimes hear namavit, for amavit; 
mmater for mater; nregi for regit, and more commonly 
still, nor emus, or gnoremus for or emus. In a language 
so rich in vowels as the Latin language, and thereby so 
well adapted for singing, it is only increasing the diffi- 
culties of the voice to be adding on consonants where 
even orthography forbids them. 

Again each word of the text must be clearly and 
distinctly enunciated. No syllables should be glided over, 
nor should final syllables be tacked on to the next word, 
as for example, e tin scecula, for et in scecula; Kyrieleison, 
for Kyrie eleison. Whenever there is a comma, observe 
it; in other cases pronounce the final consonant clearly, 
and make the slightest possible, almost an imperceptible 
break in the tone, before the next vowel. For the third 
time let it be stated; — Sing the voivel, let the con- 
sonant just be heard. So that in the word Sanctus, the 
first syllable of which is usually sung to a long note even 
in modern music, let that first syllable be Sa- and the 
second, -nctus; and not San-ctus, or still worse Sang-tus. 

From the articulation of syllables to the articulation 
of complete words or phrases of a sentence, the transi- 
tion is not difficult. All that need be remembered is to 
manage the breath well, to adapt the power of the voice 
to the dimensions of the building in which it is to be 
heard, and to utter the words distinctly. He is a good 
speaker who declaims well, who has a distinct utterance, 


speaking slowly and with a clear voice, distinguishing 
the important from the less important passages of his 
speech, and knowing when to raise or lower his voice, 
so as to bring out the sense and meaning of his words 
and phrases. We have said it already, at least in equi- 
valent terms; — that Word and Tone are related. The 
Word puts meaning into the Tone, and the Tone throws 
ivarmth and life into the Word. Music is the language 
of the feelings, as ivords are the language of the under- 

CHAPTER 11 th . 

I. The Latin language has the vowels a, e, i, o, u (v), 
(y); and the Diphtongs ce, ce, a%i and eu. A has always 
the one sound Pater, as a in the English word father. 
E is pronounced as a in gate or say when before a, i, o 
and u; before consonants in general as e in met. I and 
Y are pronounced as ee in seen. as o in no, and U 
under all circumstances , and in all cases, as oo in goose. 
The vowel y is taken from the Greek alphabet and found 
in such words as Kyrie, hyssopo, Babylon, butyrum, coe- 
nomyia and sounded as I. The Diphthongs & and oe, as 
in sce-cu-lum, coe-lum, are pronounced as the vowel E 
itself, i. e. as a in the English word say. The Diphthong 
eu is only met with in the words heu, elieu, ceu, seu, neu, 
neuter and neutiquam, and in the Greek words Eu-ge and 
Euphrates, and is to be sounded as a Diphthong. But 
in all other words where these vowels come together as 
De-us, me-us, re-us, o-le-um fer-re-us, the two vowels are 
sounded apart. 

JEi is a Diphthong in the word hei, in all other 
words, the vowels are sounded separately, therefore ele- 
ison, de-inde, de-itas, di-e-i. 


Vi is a dissyllable in huic and cui, in which the 
stress is laid on the first vowel and the second slurred. 
They should never be pronounced as the English words 
pike or sky. Those vowels are separate in Spi-ri-tu-i, 
ge-nu-i, vb-lu-i etc. 

Au is always a Diphthong, and to be pronounced as 
ou in the English word house. Sometimes when the vowels 
should be sounded separately, this is indicated by two 
little dots placed over the last vowel, called puncta dia- 
reseos, which distinguish them from other words of iden- 
tical spelling; thus aer, aeris (to distinguish it from aeris). 
V, v in early Latin is often written for V\ as in vnvm for 
unum; and is then pronounced of course as the vowel V: 
but when used as a consonant in such words as Veritas, 
vox, silva etc. it is pronounced as our English v in voice. 

The Consonants are b, c, d, f, g, h, (k,) 1, m, n, 1 ) 
p, q, r, s, t, x, (z); and for them the general rule is: 
Pronounce them as they are pronounced in English. The 
exceptions are 1 st with regard to the letter c. 2 ) C before 
e, i, y, ce, oe and eu, should be pronounced as ch in 
cheese or child; before other vowels and all consonants 
as k. Therefore the words ce-drus, ci-ha-vit, Cy-re-ne, 

') These are three consonants (I, m, n) that singers have most 
reason to be careful of; for there is a great tendency to prolong them, 
and if so the vowel is sacrificed, and the tone infallibly becomes nasal. 

2 ) [We prefer adopting the Italian pronunciation of the Latin for 
many reasons ; 1 st because it is the pronunciation adopted at the foun- 
tain head, Eome; 2 ud because it is spreading very rapidly, and in Eng- 
land and the United States is all but universal; lastly, because it is 
more musical. The soft c before e and i, is decidedly better adapted 
for vocalization than the hissing consonant s into which c is converted 
in countries outside of Italy. The Germans affect a compromise and 
pronounce the c as a German z, e. g. zedrus, zibavit. However the 
rules laid down here for the pronunciation of this letter, whether in 
its simple form or in composition, need not be adhered to by those 
accustomed to another pronunciation, except in so far as they may 
wish to promote uniformity. But we would be anxious to insist on 
the Italian pronunciation of U in all cases, and without exception, 
for it is a matter of the greatest importance in singing Latin.] 


cce-sus, coß-lum, ceu, should be sounded as if written 
tsche-drus, tschi-ba-vit etc. When however c comes be- 
fore h itself, it is pronounced as Jc, e. g. chirotheca will 
be kirotheca. Sc before the same vowels is sounded as 
sli in should; thus descendit, read as if deshendit. Sch 
is to be separated: Pas-cha, s-chola. Xc, before e, i, 
y, etc. is as gsh in egg-shell: thus excelsis, should be 
pronounced as if written eggshelsis. Double cc, before 
the vowels mentioned is pronounced as tc 1 e. g. JEcce, 
pronounced Msclie. The 2 nd exception is with regard to 
the letter j, when used as a consonant in the words 
Juda, Jerusalem, jam, juxta etc. it is to be pronounced 
as y in the word you; or indeed we may say it is still 
to be considered as the same vowel i, only written in 
that lengthened form j before another vowel and when 
commencing a syllable. Therefore the words shall be 
Yuda, Yerusalem, Yesus etc. G is always soft before e 
and i as ge-nu-i. K is usually sounded as hard c. X and 
Z are double consonants, and to be treated as cs and ds. 
Z occurs only in foreign words. 

When a vowel follows the syllable ti, this syllable 
is to be pronounced as if d, e. g. o-ti-um, gra-ti-as, ju- 
sti-ti-a, are equal to, o-si-um, gra-zi(dsi)-as, yu-sti-zi-a. 
Except from this rule foreign names such as Aegypti-i, 
and when another t, s or x comes immediately before 
this syllable; therefore, ostium, mixtio, Qu, gu and su, 
are sounded as to, gw and sw, when they form one syl- 
lable with the following vowel; thus, quan-do, san-guis, 
.sua-vis; but when they form a distinct syllable as in su- 
um, they are pronounced according to the rules already 
given. Sequutus and loquutus, are but different ways of 
writing secutus and locutus, and are to be sounded ac- 

When two vowels come together, one at the end of 
a word, and the other commencing the following word, 


we meet with the so-called Hiatus, or break In Poetry, 
the rule is, elide the first vowel. In the Christmas Hymn 
for instance, Jesu Bedemptor, whether reading or singing 
it, we must say, antoriginem, and not ante originem. 
In the official edition of the Vesper al, this is indicated 
by the sign ^ placed where the hiatus occurs. In the 
Directorium cliori (same edition) page [42], mille^ange- 
lorum = millangelorum , or supernce^et = supemet. In 
Prose however the rule laid clown in the preceding chapter 
holds good; i. e. the final syllables of words must never 
be absorbed into the first syllable of the next word. 
Consequently it will be Kyrie e-le-i-son, and not Kyrie- 
leison. 1 ) Double vowels in the middle or beginning of 
words are to be uttered separately, thus de-esse, e-le-e- 
mosyna, au-di-it, A-aron. 

The division of words into their constituent syllables 
is sufficiently indicated in the new liturgical books by 
hyphens placed between each syllable. However a few 
leading rules may be here given for general use: 1 st . A 
consonant coming between two vowels, belongs to the 
latter vowel, as pa-ter, lau-do. 2 nd . Consonants which 
commence a Latin or Greek word together, remain 
together when forming the inner syllable of a word; e. g. 
pa-tris, e-sca, i-gnis, o-mnis, scri-ptus, pa-stor, ho-spes; 
on the other hand man-da-vit, San-ctus (although in 
singing the n must not be allowed to interfere with the a) 
red-em-ptio. Double consonants are pronounced separate- 
ly; e. g. pos-ses-si-o-nem. Compound words are divided 
into their component parts, sus-ce-pit, tam-quam. 

II. The production of pure tone by vocalization, the 
correct articulation of vowels and consonants, and their 

*) [This insufficient pronunciation of the word is unfortunately 
very common. Also the le-i, is made one syllable and pronounced 
as the English lie, which is wrong; the e and i should be sounded 


real power or sound, may be called the elements of song; 
now we come to speak of the manner in which these ele- 
ments should be put together to constitute good singing. 
In words of more than two syllables, the official Edition 
of the Eitual Books marks the accented syllable with a 
little stroke, thus, re-di-me. So that we need only give 
rules for monosyllables, and dissyllables. Monosyllables 
are always accented. In dissyllables the accent falls 
(unless otherwise marked) on the first syllable; thus: 
md-ter, hd-mo. Hebrew names such as Sion, Jacob, etc. 
have the accent on the last syllable; and this is the 
reason why in the mediation of the Psalms, as we shall 
afterwards see, the voice is inflected upwards, as with 

A complete dissertation on long and short syllables,, 
their relations to each other in composition, and the 
difference between Quantity and Accent, would be out 
of place here. As a general rule however, it may be 
stated, that the syllable, which immediately follows an 
I accented syllable, is shorter than the syllable next com- 
ing on. Thus in the word M-mi-nes; ho is accented, mi 
is short, nes not quite so short. A vowel followed im- 
mediately by another vowel, is, as a rule, short; e. g. 
proprio, omnia. In the Recitation of Psalms, Lessons, 
Prseyers &c. we should carefully distinguish the reading 
from the musical accent. In reading, all the rules for 
pronunciation, and accentuation should be faithfully ad- 
hered to. In singing, the voice must give still greater 
emphasis to the accented syllable, and the other syllables 
should follow humbly and quietly in its train. A strong 
accentuation of the syllable mi in hominibus, demands 
preparatory voice power on the preceeding syllable ho; 
and ni and bus fall in respectively as weaker and less 
weak echoes. The accents of words of many syllables, 
take precedence of dissyllabic accents, and serve as it 

were the purpose of distance posts in the recitation. Even 
in English a continuous succession of monosyllables and 
dissyllables becomes tiresome. Let the text of the Credo 
serve as an example, where the weightest accents are laid 
on the syllables Pa, ten, cto, Fi, ge etc. He who reads 
and accentuates well, and is gifted with a good voice 
and sufficient technical knowledge, must sing Gregorian 

CHAPTER 12 th . j 


Striking the note, means good Intonation; 1 ) that is 
to say a facility of hitting the exact note of the scale 
you wish to sing, decidedly, in tune, and without any 
preparatory sliding up to it. The "good attack" as M. Fetis 
calls it; or "that vigorous shock of the glottis", as Garcia 
describes it, should become a habit of the singer. The 
voice should always have a bold decided opening, as well 
as a distinct close. Each note should be like a newly 
cut coin. Nothing can be more injurious to the good 
effect of singing than an uncertain, timid, groping for the 
note; or sliding up to a distant interval, and then only 
reaching it with exhausted breath, and out of tune. In- 
tonation must be decided, and true. For this purpose 
regulate the pitch of the voice, according to the compass 
of the music to be sung. Choose neither too high nor 
too low a tone to commence with, but one that lies se- 
curely in the middle register of the voice. When a long 
recitation must be sung to the one note, let the pitch 
be a medium pitch, for if high, the voice becomes dis- 
agreeably shrill and strident, if low, inaudible. 

An ear for music may be acquired or a defective 
ear considerably improved, by industrious practice of the 

*) Tinctoris in his "Definitorium" writes: "Intonatio est debita 
.cantus inchoatio." 


simpler intervals, and with the assistance of an instru- 
ment, (Violin better than Pianoforte). 

We are said to sing flat when the voice falls a little 
from the true tone of the note; sharp when the voice is 
somewhat higher than the note to be sung; and incor- 
rectly when we strike a different note altogether from 
the one indicated. 

The following exercises in the different intervals of 
the scale, may be practised on the vowel sounds, on the 
letters of the alphabet, on the syllables of Guido, or on 
words, (on words in order to acquire the correct accent) 
and should be repeated again and again, until the student 
acquires steadiness and purity of intonation. 1 ) 


1. 2. 


1*-»- * ! » u * } |^H-W-»f * w , m [>-^-^-M| 


1. 2. 

De -us, so-lum, vir-go, ma-ter. Do-mi-nus, glo-ri-a, di-li-git, sol-ve-ris, 


fi-li-us, hö -mi -num. Ma-ri - a, in-ten-dit, re-gi-na, redemptor. 


1. 2. 3. 

Agnus, Si -on. Red-e-mit, termi-nus, ae-ter-num. 


Laudämus te, be-ne-di-ci-mus te, ad -o- ramus te, glo-ri- fi-camus te. 

*) Quintilian says : "Phonascis et oratoribas, necessaria est eocercitatio 
qua omnia tconvalescunt." 


1. IT * 2. 

u-ni-ge-ni- te Je-su, 
mi -se- re -re no -bis, depre-ca-ti - ö-nem nostram, sa-lu-tä-re tu -urn. 

i. v - 

No-ster, clemens, vi-vit, regnas, po-tens, 


semper. E-go sumpa-stor bonus, ad portas pa-ra-di-si 

co-ro-na-vit e-um. Gon-fi - te - or De - o o-mni-po - ten-ti. 1$. Amen. 


c vi-ta a-ve, semper Virgo 


canunt De-o. Tradent enim vos in conci-li-is su-is, et fla-gel-lä-bunt vos. 


1. . VI1 - 2. 


4. Tritonus. Perfect fourth. 

fa sol la si, fa si, fa sol la sa, fa sa 

Tritonus. Perfect fourth. 

si la sol fa , si fa , sa la sol fa , sa fa. 




Le-cti - o sancti Augu-sti - ni 
E- pi-sco-pi su-per Psalmos. Tu au-tem Do-mi-ne mi -se- re -re 

W— H — M 




no - bis. 1$. De - o grä - ti - as. Fa - eta est cum An-ge - lo. 


1. 2. 

Sancti per fi-dem vi-ce-runt regna. 

Adhse-sit ä - ni-ma me - a. 

Grä-ti - as a-gens be-ne-di-xit Do-mi-num. O-ri- e-tur in di - 6- bus 




: 1 ; 

^-^ =^m-T 

:^=S=M=q-3ecW= H=5=Jf 



Do-mi-ni ab-undan-ti - a pa-cis et do-mi-nä-bi-tur. Hö-di-e 
in ter-ra ca-nunt Ange - li, ho-di - e exsül-tant ju-sti. Alle-lü-ja. 






re mi /a sol la si ut re ut si la sol fa mi re 

Be - ä - tus vir, qui ti-met Dö-mi-num, be-ne - di - ce - tur. 







Be - ä-tus vir, qui timet Dominum , be-ne-di - ce-tur. 



XI. Seconds. 

beb ede de 







Za si Z« si %£ si %£ re m£ re mi re mi fa mi 

Gilo - ri - a, Ky-ri - e, im-pi - us, vo-liin-tas, Dö-mi-nus, 
f g f g a g abc bed cde 




/a soZ /« soZ Z« soZ Za si ut si ut re ut re mi 

vin-cu - la, be - ä - tus , sse - cu-lum, fer-re - us, Do-mi-nus , 
d e f e f g f g a g a bjz a b c 

re mi fa mi fa sol fa sol la sol la sa la si ut 

ha - be-mus , si - de - ra, lau-da - te , 16-que-re, Ga-bri-el, 







f g a 

~H — >H- 

b c d e 

si «£ re si w£ re mi /a soZ Za 

An-ge-lus. Di - li-gam te Dö-mi-ne 

si ut re mi 

in se - ternum. 


XII. Thirds. 

efge fgaf gfegabca. bagb 

mi fa sol mi fa sol la fa sol fa mi sol la si ut la si la sol si 
Mi-se-ricors, miserä-tor, mul-ti-tu-do, in-i-quitas, of-fe-rämus,. 

cdec debd cbac 



b c d b 

a c 


ut> re mi ut re ut si re ut si la ut si ut re si la ut 

sempiterna, po-tenti-a, il-lümi-na, morta-li-a. Sal-ve, 

b g 



g e d 



e c d 




si sol fa la sol mi re fa mi ut re ut la 

sancta , pa - reus, De - us , po - tens, cle-mens. Sal -vä - tor,, 



c d f e d 


f g a 


ut re fa mi re mi 

ful-gu - ris , o-mni - a. 


b c d e f 


/« soZ ?« si «£ re mi /a 

Ex-au - di De - us o - ra - ti- 






mi re ut si la sol 

6-neni me -am, in- ten 

fa mi re ut. 

de Dö-mi-ne. 




XIII. Fourths. 

d e f g d 

f g a 

w£ re mi fa ut re mi fa sol re mi fa sol la mi 

Mul- ti - tu - di-nem, sa- cri - fi - ci - um, contemplä - ti - o, 





sol la si ut sol fa sol la sa fa la si ut re la 

re-mi- ni-sce-re, be-ne- di-cti - o, be-ne-pla-ci-tum, 
bcdeb cdefc cfe 


si ut re mi si ut re mi fa ut 

so - le-mni- tä - te , vir - tu - te magna. 

ut fa mi 

d g f 

a g 






b|2 a 


re sol fa mi la sol fa sa la 
16- qui - tur , vo - la - vit , a - scen-dit , 

a d 


e d 

c f e d a c 

sol ut sa 

b? f a 

la re ut si mi re ut fa mi re la ut sa fa la 

o- de -runt, a-mi-cus, gra-ti- as, de -bi- turn, in-no-cens. 


g d f 


sol re fa mi ut fa 
te - ne-brae, Cre - ä - tor. 



b a 



d e f 

sol fa mi re ut si la 
lu - it fe - cit in coe - lo 

sol la si ut re mi fa 
O-mni-a qusecümque vo- 



sol fa mi re. 

et in ter-ra. 



XIV. Fifths, and mixed Intervals. 

f ga dcdefg c efgabe 





re mi /<z sol la re ut re mi fa sol ut mi fa sol la si mi 

Mi - se - ri - cor-di - am, in - si - pi - en-ti - am, adversi-ta-ti-bus, 
fgabcf gabcdg abcdea 








fa sol la si ut fa sol la si ut re sol la si ut re mi la 

co- gi-ta - ti - o-nes , be-ne-di-cti- 6-nem, suppli-ca-ti - 6-nes. 


d ab 


re la si 

A- ve. 

dab|? a aga d da a c a gf 

relasa la 

Sal - ve. 

la sol la re 

I - te. 

rela la ut la sol fa 

Tu - ba in - so - net. 


g g gd e f fa a g g cd dab a 



so£ so? soZre mi /a /«Zß £a so? 

A - li - as o - ves ha - be - o. 

sol utre relasa la 

Ut au - di - vit. 

OBSERVATION. The best exercises for ear -im- 
provement, recitation, pronunciation, and intervals, are 
as experience teaches, the Psalm-Tones; then, for be- 
ginners, the Anthems of the B. V. for the four seasons, 
as in the Directorium Chori, then the Chants of the 


Mass, (especially the Credo) in the Ordinarium Missce, 
and Graduate JRomanum. 

Here we subjoin a setting of all the Intervals ac- 
cording to a quaint old form. 1 ) 


-M ■ * c 



Ter ter-ni sunt mo-di, qui -bus omnis can-ti-le-na 

From 3 X 3 (9 without unison) Intervals is every song 

i =M =g^^E^^g j^gzg Efe ^z^zg 

con-te - xi - tur , sei - li - cet : U - ui - so-uus , Se- mi - to-ni - urn, 

constructed, namely: Unison, minor second^ 1 2 Ton), 


^To-nus, Se-mi-di-to-nus, Di-to-uus, Di - a-tessa-ron, 

fulltone, minor Third, major Third, Fourth, 

Di-a-pen-te, Se-mi-tö-ni-um cum di-a-pente, To-uus cum 

Fifth, minor Sixth, major 


— :j— * H-| 1— ■- 


di-a-pen-te, ad hsec mo-dus di-a-pa-son. Si quern 

Sixth, then the Octave. Who wishes 

de-le-ctat can-tus hos mo -dos es-se cog-no-scat. 

to enjoy song, must know these intervals. 

*) In Coussemacker, Script. Tom. III. pag. 425; also in 1 st and 3 d 
vol. several similar combinations are found. The example here given 
is also found in Glarean and Gerbert. 

2 ) In Coussemacker the following sentence is also put to music in 
different Intervals. "Cumque tarn paucis clansulis tota armonia for- 
metur, utilissimum est, eas alte memorise commendare, nee prius ab 
hujusmodi studio quiescere, donee vocum intervallis agnitis harmonia 
totius facillime queat comprehendere notitiam." In other words "prac- 
tise a little, zealously and continuously, and you will learn to strike 
the notes securely." 

Magister Choralis. 5 



CHAPTER 13 th . 

If the sounds of any of the seven diatonic scales 
are divided into fifths and fourths, — pentachords and 
tetrachords, — and are so disposed as to form a melody 
or musical phrase, bearing a fixed relation to one prin- 
cipal or fundamental sound; the melody so constructed 
is said to be in a Church Mode or Tone. 1 ) 

OBSERVATION. It cannot be too frequently or too 
clearly stated that there is a wide essential difference 
between the Church Modes or Gamuts, and the so-called 
Keys of modern music. In the seven scales of the Dia- 
tonic genus, the order of the tones and semitones, changes 
according to the first sound of the series; whereas in 
modern music, the different keys, major or minor, are 
but transpositions of the same progression of sounds, 
into a higher or lower pitch. 

The Key therefore only changes the pitch of the 
scale so that all major scales are but transpositions of 
the scale of c, and all minor scales, transpositions of 
the scale of a. The proper Latin denomination for a 
Church Mode is modus, in contradistinction to tonus 
which indicates certain fixed forms of the mode. Guido 
blames the misapplication of tonus instead of modus, 
which at his time were frequently interchanged. Later 

*) Ugolinus of Orvieto in the 15 th century writes: "Tropus, tonus 
sive modus est quamplurium vocum ex diapente ac diatessaron ordinatis 
speciebus debite conjunctarum in acumine et gravitate distantium per arsin 
et thesin congrua neumarum forma constitutarum conveniens disjiositio." 


on the Theorists of mensural music changed the signifi- 
cations, so that Tinctoris (in the 15 th century) defines 
modus as the "measure of a melody", and tonus the scale 
on which the melody is composed. Toni are, if taken 
in their exact meaning, the proper denomination for the 
eight fixed forms for chanting the Psalms, Gloria Patri etc., 
and modi for the scales of the other Choral Chants. They 
are called Church Modes or Church Tones to distinguish 
them from the modern major and minor keys which from 
the 17 th century through the employment of chromatic 
semitones were in the commencement employed princi- 
pally for secular music. 

According to the position of the semitone in each 
particular scale we must distinguish four species of fifths 
and three species of fourths, as shown in this table: 

I. Fifths. 

E^F Gab 

mi fa sol la si 

D E^F G a 

re mi fa sol la 

a b^c d e 
la si do re mi 

r A B^C D 

G a b^c d 

sol la si do re 

C D E^F G 
c d e^f g 

do re mi fa sol 

F G a^bb c 
fa sol la sa do 

F G a b^c 

fa sol la si do 

> 1. Species. 

2. Species. 

3. Species. 

> 4. Species. 

II. Fourths. 

B^C D E 

b^c d e 

si do re mi 

E F G a 

e ^ f g cä 
mi fa sol la 

D E^F G 

d e ^ f g 

re mi fa sol 

A B^C D 

a b^c d 

la si do re 

r A B^C 

G a b^c 

sol la si do 

C D E^F 

c d e^f 

do re mi fa 

F G a^bt? 

fa sol la sa 

1. Species. 

2. Species. 

3. Species. 



The most ancient musical theorists speak of eight 
modes only, which were constructed on the sounds re- 
presented by D, E, F, G; and so constructed that each 
scale had two methods of progression. 1 st . The scales 
beginning with D, E, F, Gr and proceeding by a fifth, 
and then a fourth. These were called authentic, 1 ) and 
marked with the Greek words Protos (first), Deuteros 
(second), Tritos (third), Tetartos (fourth). 2 nd . Should the 
upper Fourth in these scales be placed under the Fifth 
instead of above it, then the compass is altered; the 
fundamental note of the authentic mode becomes the 
fourth in a new scale, and the scale thus formed is 
styled plagal, 2 ) also lateralis, subjugalis, or subordinate 
scale. Hence the denominations modus protus authentus 
for the first, and modus protus subjugalis (also plagius 
and plag alls) for the Mode called later on the second. 

From this we may construct a synopsis of the eight 
Modes in the following manner: The protus furnishes 
the notes for the second, the deuterus (now called third), 
for the fourth, the tritus (now fifth), for the sixth, and 
the tetartus (now seventh), for the eighth Mode. 

Synopsis of the eight Modes. 

I. Modus authenticus. II. Modus plagalis. 

DEFGa abed ABCD D E F G a 

Fifth. Fourth. Fourth. Fifth. 

III. Modus authent. IV. Modus plagalis. 

E F G a b bede BCDE E F G a b 

^^^ fEj^^^cP^^^P 

,n tr*-- — i— — — 'J-— — k^w— = — 1—^_ -u-i 

' Fifth. Fourth. Fourth. Fifth. 

*) uv&eyiiiSj genuine, original. 

2 ) nkctyiog, derived, i. e. deduced from the authentic. 


V. Modus authent. 
F G a b c cdef 




VI. Modus plagalis. 

CDEF F G a b 

Fifth. Fourth. 

VII Modus authent. 
G a b c d def 






VIII. Modus plagalis. 
DEFG G a b c d 






After the 12 th century, we first discover a desire in 
the interest of Polyphonic Chant to adopt the Greek 
Tone-system, which also admitted scales constructed on 
the other notes of the scale with the exception of b. 
Glarean (Henry Loritus from Glarus) was the first to 
teach the complete series in his work the "Dodekachor- 
don" , compiled in 1547, and the Theorists who came 
lifter him accepting his views, 1 ) four new scales or modes 
were established: 

IX. Modus authent. 
abcde e f g a 




X. Modus plagalis. 

E F G a abcde 




Fifth. Fourth. 

XL Modus authent. 
cdefg g a b c 





XII. Modus plagalis. 

Gabc cdefg 







*) Ambros, Musikgeschichte vol. II. p. 51, remarks upon the logical 
•development of the new modes. "The second, fourth and sixth (erro- 
neously printed fifth) Church Modes have a twofold character. All 
three are plagal derived from their corresponding authentic modes, 
but according to the position of their two semitones they may be 
regarded as independent modes and form as it were three new authentic 
.scales, wherein the first note becomes the foundation of the scale, and 
thus avoid all dependency and it then becomes possible to derive 
l from them three new plagal Tones." 


On closer inspection it will be seen that this newly 
constructed 9 th Mode, passes the ordinary compass (g, in 
the third octave) of Gregorian Chant, hence it is seldom 
to be met with; but the 10 th Mode frequently occurs. So 
also the 11 th Mode, but transposed an octave lower, thus 


l ) 


re mi fa 


sol la si 


CHAPTER 14 th . 

I. The eight (12) Church Modes, as explained in the 
foregoing chapter, are divided into two classes, authentic 
and plagal Numerically arranged they are called primus, 
secundus, tertius, quartus, etc., i. e. first, second, third, 
fourth. The supperaddecl Grecian names which were uni- 
versally adopted before Glarean's time, are for the series 
of twelve Modes as follows: 







Hypodorius 2 ) 






























Hypojonicus 3 ) 


*) An XI. and XII. mode were attempted to be formed on si-fa-si T 
and plagally Fa-si-fa, but the Tritone Fa- si and the diminished fifth 
si -fa rendered these modes useless and they were put aside. Theo- 
retically however they were numbered as 11 th and 12 th , and then the 
modes erected on c were counted as 13 th and 14 th . The title of Gla- 
rean's Book "Dodekachordon", or "twelve strings", shows that he 
only acknowledged twelve scales built up on six foundation notes. 

a ) vno denotes the transposition of the fourth, which in plagal 
modes comes under the fifth. 

3 ) To the unharmonic note on b natural, Glarean gives the name 
hyperceolius for (si-fa-si) and hyperphrygius for (fa-si-fa). 


IT. On comparing the authentic with the plagal, (by 
looking at the synopsis already given) we find the follow- 
ing differences. 

1) The authentic have the fifth below, and the fourth 
above. In the Plagal modes the fourth is below, and 
the fifth above. Both fourths and fifths are alike in each 
pair of modes, but their relative position different. 

2) The authentic mode and its corresponding plagal 
together have a compass (ambitus) or range of eleven notes, 
of which five are common to both, and three not common. 

I. Modus authenticus: D, E, F, G, a, b, c, d. 

II. Modus plagalis: A, B, C, D, E, F, G-, a. 

3) The first note of each authentic mode is the fun- 
damental of it and of its corresponding plagal; 1 ) (tonus 
fundamentalis) , or Tonica, because the melody is built 
up and constructed upon it. It is also, and more com- 
monly called the Final, finalis, because every authentic 
and plagal melody when regular, ends with it. The Finals 
therefore, as we shall call them, or fundamental notes of 
each tone, are as follows: 

i & ii. in & iv. v & vi. vii & vni. ix & x. 





D, re, 

E, mi, 

F, fa, 

G, sol, a, la, 


c, do. 

4) A tone is said to be regular (regularise when the 
phrase or melody closes with its regular final; if it end 
on any other note it is called irregular, (Irregularis). 

x ) The first note of a Gregorian melody is mostly different from 
the final note. Here by first note we mean the first note of the mode 
on which the melody is formed. 


These irregular finals are also called Confinal notes, 
and are often met with in the endings of Psalm tones, 
and in the divisions or sections of Responsories, Graduals 
and Tracts. 

5) The range or compass (ambitus) of the existing 
melodies taken in conjunction with the range laid down 
theoretically for the scales of the different modes, gives 
rise with the mediaeval Theorists to another classification. 

The Tone for instance is called: 

1. Perfect, Tonus perfectus, if, in authentic modes, 
the melody ranges to the octave: or — in plagal modes, 
to the fifth above and the fourth below the final. Ex- 
amples: the Communio "JEcce Virgo", page 11; Introit 
" Miser ebitur", p. 427; Offertorium u Benedictus es", p. 72 
of the Octavo official edition of the Graduate Bomanum 
(Ratisbon 1870). Here the rule is borne out: "Omnis 
cantilence legalis ascensus et descensus per diapason con- 
struitur" *) 

2. Imperfect, Tonus imperfectus, when in authentic 
tones, the octave from the final is not reached, or in 
plagal tones the fourth below the final. Many of the 
Antiphons of the canonical hours, the Lamentations of 
Holy Week (VI. Toni), and several smaller forms of 
chant, such as the Intonations of the Psalms, (which how- 
ever, are completed by the Antiphon to which they are 
united), belong to this class. 

3. More than perfect, or superfluous (Tonus plusguam- 
perfectus or super abundans) , when the authentic mode 
contains a note beloiv its final, or above its octave; or 
when the plagal mode ranges downwards more than a 
fourth from its final. 

4. Mixed (Tonus mixtus), when the natural range 
(ambitus) of a mode, is exceeded by more than one note, 

x ) Grerbert, Script. Tom. II. p. 58. 


so that the authentic and its corresponding plagal may 
be said to run into one another. Of this we have examples 
in the Te Deum, in the Sequences Lauda Sion, Dies tree, 
Veni sancte Spiritus de. By Tonus eommixtus we under- 
stand those chants which pass into a remote mode, e. g. 
from the V th to the VII th , or from the I st to the IV th . 

5. The Tone is called communis perfectus, if the 
authentic tone ranges to the fourth below the final (and 
thereby becomes plagal) or the plagal to the octave above 
the final (and so becomes authentic). The melody, then, 
comprises the eleven notes of the authentic and its plagal 
united. We have an example of this in the Easter Se- 
quence Victimce Paschali, page 232, and in the Anti- 
phon Cum appropinquaret for the Procession of Palm- 
Sunday, page 172. *) 

I CHAPTER 15 th . 


In order to know to which Tone any given Chant 
belongs, certain signs or marks are necessary. The surest 
and most general sign is the final. The next charac- 
teristic mark to determine the Tone will be its range, 
(ambitus). This shows to what scale the melody belongs, 
whether such scale be fully or only partially employed; 
and serves also to mark the difference between perfect 
and imperfect Tones. (See preceding Chapter.) The 
third mark or sign to indicate the Tone of a Gregorian 
melody, is the Dominant, z ) also called the Tenor. In the 

*) These few words fairly convey the contents of the theoretical 
works of the middle ages published by Gerbert and Coussemacker, 
and in a condensed form by P. Utto Kornmüller in the K.-M. Jahrbuch 
1886—1889, given in chronological order. It must be observed how- 
ever that all these theories do not serve as a guide for the composition 
of Gregorian chants, but are only inferred from chants already in use. 

2 ) The student must be careful to distinguish between the Domi- 
nant in Gregorian; and the Dominant in modern music which is ai- 
rways a 5 th above the tonic. In* Gregorian it varies. 


annexed Table the Finals and Dominants of the 12 (14) 

Tones are shown together. 










































e 1 

To distinguish therefore the plagal from the authen- 
tic tone; — as both have the same final; — we must see 
if the melody ranges downwards more than one note 
below the final; and observe which note may be the 
Dominant, i. e. on which note is the body of the words 
sung or recited. In more florid compositions this will 
be less apparent, but it will be always found that in 
singing in any particular mode, the voice always has a 
tendency to attach itself to the Dominant. 

Finals and Dominants one with another give what 
is called the Repercussion, i. e. the Interval which in each 
Tone repeats itself. According to the Table given above, 
the Repercussion in each Tone, is: 

Toni. Kepercuss. 






re — la 
re— fa 
mi — do 

mi — la 




fa — do 
fa — la 

sol — re 
sol — do 





la — mi 
la — do 
do — sol 
do — mi 

Again, in the authentic Tones the melody goes evenly 
to the Final; in the plagal tones oftentimes by skips. 
Should the fifth be specially remarkable over the Final, 
the Mode is to be considered authentic. 


Lastly, each Tone has certain notes or note-group- 
ings, with which the chant usually begins ; and as a Rule, 
it may be observed, that in authentic Tones the Chant 
never begins with a Tone distant from the final by 
a fifth, or in plagals by a fourth. In the construction 
of the middle cadences, (sections of the musical compo- 
sition indicated with punctuation marks , ; : &c.) the 
rule is observed, to make them, in authentic tones, on 
the final, the fifth, or intermediate notes, and in plagals, 
never to go beyond the fourth For the eight Church 
Tones most in use, we may enumerate the regular 1 ) 
initial notes or Intonations, as follows: 

Ton. L: C, B, F, G (E, a). Ton. V.: F, G, a, c. 

Ton. II: A, C, B, E. Ton. VI: C (B, E), F (a). 

Ton. Ill: E, F, G, a (c). Ton. VII: G, l\, c, d. 

Ton. IV.: C, D, E, F, G, a. Ton. VIII.: C, B, F, G, a, c 

For all practical purposes, singers of Gregorian Chant 
have but to glance at the book and the number of the 
Tone will be found printed in all the new editions. 

CHAPTER 16 th . 

AND 4 th TONES. 

There is one fundamental law in Gregorian Chant 
which must be observed in all the Tones, to wit: "The 
immediate progression by an augmented fourth (Tritonus) 
or a diminished fifth is not allowable in Gregorian, and 

*) It is a peculiarity and an intentional innovation in the Chants 
of the editio mediccea (1614) that all melodies in authentic modes begin 
with the final. Also most of those in plagal modes begin with the 
final, only those of the second Mode begin mostly with A, the first 
note of the scale. In the chants composed subsequently for most 
recent Feasts this custom is not so generally observed. In the Anti- 
phons of the Antiphonarium Romanum the opening notes regulate the 
final cadences of the Psalms which follow as for example if an Anti- 
phon in the 8 th mode begins with do, that is a sign that the second 
* final of the 8 th mode should be employed in the Psalm. 


such Intervals when met with must be made perfect, by 
placing a J? before the si'" and so depressing it a semitone. 

The scale or gamut of the 1 st Tone, (doric) may pro- 
ceed from its final to an octave ascending, and a major 
second descending; it seldom ascends to e, but descends 
to C. B flat must be used whenever the Tritone is to 
be avoided, or when the melody does not go above si] 
Example: The Ite Missa est on Semidoubles (See JDire- 
ctorimn chori page 78*) and the Communio Ecce vir go 
(Grad. Bom. page 11). 

The phrase D-a-b\>-a, recurs times without number 
in Chants of the 1 st Tone. Nevertheless in the Hvmn, 
Ave maris Stella, the third note 


A - ve ma - ris stel - la. 

is not to be sung as b flat, as the melody immediately 
proceeds to the octave. 

Examples for the different Tones, are in abundance 
in the Gr aduale and Directorium chori] and the diligent 
student should analyse some of them and study their 
peculiarities. The Chants of the first Tone are joyous, 
festive, and majestic. 1 ) 

The second Tone (hypodoric) or 1 st Plagal, u finem 
facit in D vel a." It has for its final D; its fifth from 
D to a; and fourth D to A descending, and thus forms 
its octave A Blj C D E F G a. 

It sometimes goes down to T gamma, but seldom; 
(see Offertory "Dextera Domini" page 61. Grad. Bom.) 
It often ascends to c. In case the Chant proceeds up- 

*) These characteristics of the Tones are not fanciful. The different 
position of the semitones in each of the scales, and the different com- 
binations of intervals give each tone a peculiar character. The cha- 
racteristics we give here are taken from old writers such as Guido, 
Adam of Fulda &c. as found in Grerbert, and especially from Cardinal 


wards to a sixth from the final, then the si takes the 
accidental b flat before it, and must be sung as sa; — 
see the seven Antiphons beginning with 0, preceding 
the Office of Christmas Day. 

The character of the second Tone (modus mmstus) is 
grave and mournful, fall of longing, grief mingled with 
trust in God. 

The third Tone (phrygian). It has E for its final, 
and its legitimate range is to the octave e acutum. It 
may descend to D ; and sometimes even to C ; e. g. Offer- 
tory, "Lauda" (Grad. Bom. page 257) sed abusive, writes 
Odo of Cluny. Si or b natural as the fifth from the 
final, is of frequent occurrence; "maxime autem ideo, quia 
ad acutissimam ejus, i. e. e diatessaron reddit." But as 
this fifth has three tones in succession, the interval is 
met with ascending or descending oftener in skips, than 
with the intermediate notes: "potius saliendo quam gra- 
diendo vadit". The third Tone is imperious, threatening 
and characterised by vehement passion. "Tertius indi- 
gnatur et acerbo insultab" For examples the following 
may be taken; the Introits: In nomine Jesu and Sacer- 
dotes tui Domine, (Grad. Bom. pages 190 and 47) and 
the Hymns : Deus tuoruwi, and Te Joseph celebrent (Vespe- 
rale Bomanum pages [12] and 325). 

The Chants of fourth Tone (hypophrygian) seldom 
descend to the fourth below E, and the want of this 
half-tone is generally supplied by extending the upper 
part of the scale to c; so that its actual ambitus, or 
range, is from C to c. The si above the final is very 
often changed into sa by prefixing the b flat, as in the 
Hymn "Virginis Proles" (Director, chori page [34]), and 
the Invitatorium "Venite" page 16*. 

The fourth Tone is known as bland, sweet and at- 
tractive, "quasi adulatur et allicit". 


CHAPTER 17 th . 


AND 8 th TONES. 

The fifth Tone (Lydian) takes the third species 
of fifth and fourth. Its Final is F or c and its range 
F-f. The characteristic note of this tone is the si or b^, 
which need only be changed into sa or b flat when sung 
from F or fa, in order to avoid the Tritone. This b§ 
natural, gives the fifth Tone a spirited majestic and joy- 
ful character, hence it is called the tonus delectabilis, 
Icetus, jubilans. This tone is not to be confounded with 
the transposed Ionian mode having a bflat in the signature. 

Examples : Introit, Loquebar, Grad. Speciosus forma, 
Offert. Mirabilis Deus, Comm. Lcetabitur Justus, Invita- 
torium Venite adoremus, V. Toni. Antiph. Qui pacem ponit. 

The fifth and fourth in the sixth Tone (hypolydian) 
are the same as those used in its authentic fifth Tone. 
Its Final is F, and the Mode descends to the fourth 
below, and forms the octave scale thus: 


It may ascend to d, and by degrees descend from 
F to C. 

The low pitch of this Tone, and the frequently re- 
curring bflat (to avoid the Tritone) give it the character 
of tenderness and quiet devotion "Sextus lachrymatur et 
plorat" (Modus lenis.) 

Examples : The Lamentations, the Antiphon quam 
metuendus, Oifertory, Domine Deus, Introits, Salus autem 
and In medio Ecclesice. 

OBSERVATION. When after the XIII th century Poly- 
phony began to be developed, certain melodies written 
in the XL and XII. modes were introduced, mainly on 
the authority and through the influence of the contra- 
puntists. Now as these two modes, especially if trans- 


posed a fourth higher with b flat in the signature, closely 
resemble the fifth and sixth, the melodies which they claim 
create no little confusion in the minds of those who de- 
vote themselves to the study of the ancient Ecclesiastical 
modes. Through respect for antiquity they were admit- 
ted into the authentic Choral books, and they are found 
in the three Marian Antiphons Alma Bedemptoris, Ave 
Begina, and Begina cceli, the Antiphons quam suavis 
I? and sacrum convivium, and finally the solemn Be missa 
est which however is of more recent origin. But in order 
to render everything uniform they should have also in- 
troduced melodies in these XL and XII. modes for the 
chanting of the Psalms, or still retaining the notation of 
the V. mode it would have been necessary to render 
them in the XL mode as follows: 

5 t 1 - * — z= * = \ or transposed l§tz=gzj=*=r ==i| — ■= ! 


Hence arises the confusion which we discover in the 

contrapuntal works of the old masters. Some retain for 

the formula of the V. mode do, re, si\>, do, la; those of 

the Ambrosian rite and others, especially of the Eoman 

school, prefer the si natural. However it may be, this 

I last arrangement should beyond all doubt be observed 

' in the fifth Tone, if it is to be maintained in its purity, 

and let the si flat be used in the transposed Ionic Tone. 

These melodies of the XL mode and the offices In 

Festo Ss. Trinitatis and in Solemnitate Corporis Christi, in 

which the first Tone is given to the first Antiphon, the 

second to the second and so on, show plainly that custom 

and circumstances are oftentimes of more avail than 

authority or theory. 

The seventh Tone (mixolydian) has for final G; 
and its range G a bt[ c d e f g. The si or h\ is essential 
to it, and especially the progression G a bjf. If a Chant 
in this Tone should not ascend to the octave from the 
final, compensation is frequently made by descending a 
full tone below the final. 

The seventh Tone breathes majesty boldness and 
^joy: (< incitate progreditur et imperiose". See the Introit 


Puer natus (Grad. Bom. page 30). The Antiphon Exaudi 
nos p. 73 conveys the impression of strong emotion. 

The eighth Tone (hypomixolydian) ranges upwards 
to e, and descends to C. 

The scale of the eighth Tone is like the first. D E 
F G a bij c d; but the melodic phrases and the Finals 
are different in both. The bflat, is not used in the eighth 
Tone so frequently as in the first 1 ); and should any piece 
have it recurring very often and not irregularly, then it 
were better to treat it as the second Tone transposed, 
having a normal bflat in the signature, as e. g. the Hymn 
Quern terra, pontus, (Director, chori page [48]). 2 ) 

The greatest number of Gregorian melodies are 
written in the eighth Tone. 3 ) The old writers consider it 
full of power and manly; also the tonus narrativus and 
modus placabilis. The seventh and eighth Tones are often, 
especially in long chants, mixed; e. g. the Lauda Sion. 

OBSERVATION. As has been already observed, 
Chants in the ninth mode, on account of its overstepping 
the conventional limit, g, of the Gregorian system, are 
seldom met with; they often appear transposed into the 
first Tone with a normal b flat. We frequently meet in 
the Graduals the tenth or hypoclolian Tone, e. g. Hodie 

x ) As a rule b flat is used iu the 8 th Toue every time the melody- 
is based ou the Hexachordum motte. To the Hexachordum durum com- 
mencing in Gr, a modern fa may he allowed to follow, hut in this 
case it should he hy way of making an end of a group of notes; e. g. 


Examples: Qui sunt sermones; the Tract Sicut cervus; the tones of 
the Hymns in Paschal time; the Introit Ad te levavi etc. etc. 

2 ) On the recommendation of the Roman Commission these Chants 
were published in the more recent editions in their original setting 
with D for final; so also the Hymn "Jesu Redemptor" (I. Tone) where 
v before e is changed into b before b. 

3 ) The reason of this frequent use of the 1 st and 8 th Tones is their 
convenient compass D— d. With these Tones and for a similar reason 
with the 4 th and 6^ h Tones transposition is seldom necessary. 


scietis (Grad. Rom.) p. 23, Tecum principium p. 25, Re- 
quiem ceternam p. 47*. The Ionic mode (XI), because 
of its fifth being g, still more closely resembles our 
modern scale of C major, than the sixth Tone. In the 
harmonic compositions of the old Masters the Ionic and 
its plagal the Hypoionic Tones were much employed, 
especially transposed to F with b flat in the signature. 
In the Vesp. Bom. there is found a Salve Regina clearly 
belonging to the XL Tone. The Sanctus, Benedictus, and 
Agnus Dei of the Missa de B. V. M., as well as several 
chants in the Gradual, especially in the Ordinarmm 
Missce, are in the eleventh Tone transposed an octave 
lower, ranging from C to c. The Antiphons Alma Bed- 
emptoris (Dir. cliori p. 60) and the solemn Ite Missa est 
{Graduate Bomanum p. 12) are transposed a fifth lower 
with I flat normal. The Antiphons Ave Begina and Begina 
cceli can also be considered as the Hypoclolian mode, 
transposed a fifth lower and I flat in the signature. These 
chants are at present published in their original mode. 

CHAPTER 18 th . 

Every Tone (modus) of the so-called Systema re- 
guläre, or durum, (because none of the seven diatonic 
scales include a b molle or flat), may be transposed] i. e. 
raised a fourth higher, or depressed a fifth lower, by 
establishing one |? immediately after the Clef, (as we say 
in modern music, in the signature^ and this alteration in 
pitch of the entire scale, is called the Systema trans- 
positum, or molle. The first Tone, for example, trans- 
posed a fourth higher will run thus: Gabt?cdefg: 
the relative position of the tones and semitones remain- 
ing unaltered. 

Mod. I. Syst. reg. Mod. I. Syst. transp. 

The notes of these transposed scales are called u tuoni 

Magister Choralis. fo 


trasportati or finti" ; and the Chant so transposed Mu- 
sica ficta. *) 

In Gregorian Chant however this kind of transposition 
does not often occur. But it is sometimes met with es- 
pecially in Chants of the L, IL, XL and XII. modes. 
And whenever a flat is thus established in the signature, 
that is an indication that the Tone has been transposed. 

But as all voices have not the same compass, and 
Gregorian is essentially Unison Chant, some arrangement 
of pitch becomes necessary, in order to bring the range 
of the several Tones ranging from T to g within the 
compass of average voices. Just as the Priest for ex- 
ample when singing the Preface, which is in the second 
Tone, begins on c d e f or g according to his vocal com- 
pass, so can all Gregorian melodies be transposed into 
a higher or lower pitch. 

In the following table we have arranged a scheme 
of transposition for all the Tones, and adapted for each 
Tone to the average range of voices. Here therefore 
instead of the natural positions of the Tones or Modes 
we give them transposed. 

I. 2 ) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 

I. T. d e^f g a bjf^C d (natural position.) 

II. T. d e~f g a~b|> c d (one f tA u ^ sposition a 

mrr\ fl'^ab -p cr o^hd n i\ (^ wo nats i n transposition a 
. ± . u ep i g dupu u. ma j 0r second down>) 

IV. T. bb ^C d e ^ f g a bjj (natural position.) 

V. T. d e fji 2%T" a bfc Cjpd ( three sharps in transposition 

ff öfl" n ft a minor third under.) 

VI. T. C d e^f g a bb^C (natural position.) 

"UTT rn A fj*-"""^™ a "hU'~V» rl ( one sliar P m transposition a 

V 11. 1. CI e l|f g a D^ C a fourth under.) 

VTTT T n rl^pb -f o- a^hl? " O (two flats through transposition 
Vlll. l.Cae?! gaDPC a major second down.) 

*) This is not the only signification of Musica ficta ; it is also used 
in contrapuntal harmony but in a different sense. 

2 ) The finals and dominants are printed in thick type, and the 
semitones occurring joined by a tie. 


In many instances these transpositions may not be 
found sufficient, each one therefore should try and fall in 
with the diapason, that is the normal pitch of our organs, 
and with its aid transpose the melodies as may be thought 
desirable, using as he may require the accidentals em- 
ployed in modern music; 1 ) although as a matter of fact 
there is no resemblance to the modern major and minor 
scales, as the division into fifths and fourths, and the 
Dominants and Finals, etc. constantly produce differences. 

As an example we give the melody of the Ite missa 
est as sung on Semidoubles in seven transpositions with- 
out altering the position of the notes. 

1) Natural position: 




De - o o grä - 



: E 

*) The major and minor scales of modern music are nothing more, 
as we have already said, than transpositions of the two major and 
minor modes founded on c and a, or do and la. They may be reduced 
to the following" 11, omitting those on do sharp or do flat, si and mi 
sharp, fa flat and others, which only differ in name and are not em- 
ployed in singing. 


tals in 


tals in 

major minor 








or gb 



or e\? 














The first note to he raised is f or fa; the others follow in a se- 
quence of fifths: f-c-g-d-a-e-bh. In flats the first note to be lowered 

12 3 4 5 6 7. 

is b: the others follow in a sequence of fourths: b-e-a-d-g-c-f. 

12 3 4 5 6 7. 

Because as every untransposed Gregorian melody may be said 




2) One tone lower: 

sol do miy 





grä - ti - as. 

3) A minor third lower : l ) 

fay* si re 






ti - as. 

4) One tone higher: 

si mi so? 


j^fr^-==j| g^gg 


-■ — p«- 

ti - as. 

De - o o grä 

5) A minor third higher (if a major third 4#) 

do fa la V 

De - o o gra - ti - as. 


6) A fourth (or twelfth) higher: 

re sol siy 





ti - as. 

7) A fifth higher: 

mi la do 



— Ni- 
gra - ti - as. 


to be in C major, as far as the signature is concerned, to facilitate 
transposition, we may imagine D major (2 Jf) when transposing a tone 
upwards, A major (3 jf) when transposing a minor third downwards, etc. 

*) To lower it a major third the 3 $ should he changed into 
4 flats. If there he a flat in the melody, it is changed into Sj in the 
sharp keys, and the t[ into a Jf. 


By practice in the C and F clefs on any of the four 
lines and the G clef on the second line, any piece may 
be transposed without changing the position of the 
notes. *) 

CHAPTER 19 th . 



The word Diesis has had several significations in 
the course of time. The Greeks used it to designate 
the half of the Limma, enharmonic diesis. In a some- 
what analogous sense the musical Theorists of the 12 th 
and 13 th centuries, call diesis every Interval, which by 
mathematical calculation does not make up an exact 
half-tone. 2 ) John de Maris (1300 — 1370) calls the minor 
semitone diesis u Semitonium minus vocatur diesis". This 
signification of it was generally established in the 16 th 
century and thence to our time, so that every raising of 
the Tone by # and Jj (this last sign was written jj even 
up to the 17 th century) was named Diesis. 3 ) 

Frequently this sign was written expressly, but for 
the most part it was left to the singers who according 

*) Singers of Gregorian Chant may spare themselves the study of 
these transpositions, if they are well accustomed to intone the Inter- 
vals, Tones, Semitones, Thirds, Fourths and Fifths in any pitch. For 
Directors and Organists however an acquaintance with them is essential. 

a ) "Cum aliquis tonus bipartitur propter aliquam consonantiam 
colorandam, prima pars toni, sic divisi, si per ascensum fit, major est, 
et vocatur chroma, pars vero, quae restat, diesis dicitur." Marchettus 
de Padua (1300). 

3 ) The Italians even still say ut diesis, and the French ut dieze. 
The English use the word sharp. The Germans when they wish^ to 
designate the sharpening or flattering of a note, instead of saying 
A flat, C flat, D sharp or F sharp they add a syllable is or es or s 
to the letter expressing the note affected by a musical accident and 
thus they have for, 

English: A sharp, B sharp, C sharp, D sharp, E sharp, F sharp, G sharp. 
German: Ais, His, Cis, Dis, Eis, Fis, Gis. 

English: A flat, B flat, C flat, D flat, E flat, F flat, G flat, 
German: As, B, Ces, Des, Es, Fes, Ges. 


to fixed rules , or by way of preference introduced it in 
cadences and closes with two voices for the reestablish- 
ment of a major sixth or minor third. As Gregorian 
Chant was always regarded as unison chant, so the rules 
for contrapuntal cadences in two parts, had no influence 
on it and the fundamental rule remains. 

Except I? before si to avoid the Tritone, no other ac- 
cidental, and no other indication of the raising or lowering 
of the Tone, is allowable in Gregorian. 

Consequently the sign $ does not exist in pure Gre- 
gorian Chant. The sign \ restoring the si, when pre- 
viously lowered by the (? prefixed to it, to its natural 
sound, is usually marked in modern editions, but it is 
not essential, as, if no Tritone occurs, it should be al- 
ways understood that si is to be sung natural. 

Many authors rely on certain passages in Gerbert 
Script, and de cantu et mus. sacra, to uphold the use of 
the diesis, and chromatic closes in Plain- Chant. Ab- 
stracting however from the obscurity and ambiguity of 
these passages, both Gerbert and Coussemacker Tom. II. 
p. 293 especially, bring forward witnesses for the con- 
trary, who to say the least of them, are fully as clear 
and of as great authority as the defenders of the Diesis. 
These are Begino of Prüm (A. D. 910) in Gerbert, Tom. I. 
p. 232, Oclo of Cluny, 1 ) Hucbald &c. Moreover, the pas- 
sage from Aurelian, quoted by Gerbert, in which the 
diesis is defined, says nothing about its use in the dia- 
tonic music of the Church. Elias Salomonis (A. D. 1274), 
quoted also by Gerbert, writes "In G non dicitur fa, sed 
recompensatur re"; 2 ) that is to say, you cannot construct 

x ) S. Odo says of it "nimis delicata, vitiosa, inaxime lasciviens, 
quod magis corrigi, quam imitari oportet." 

2 ) Ambros in his History of Music is also of opinion that it was 
much later, when forsooth Gregorian Chant and figured Music were 
mixed up, and the latter got the upper hand, that the $ was used 


a Hexaehord (See Table of Hexachords in Chap. 1.) on D, 
because then it would run thus DEFfG, but you must 

ut re mi fa, 

begin a Tone under G, and say F Gr a bl?. *) 

ut re mi fa. 

Padre Martini (A. D. 1784) whose work on music 
has earned a world-wide reputation, writes: "The Cantus 
"firmus is, according to the testimony of the earliest 
"authors, purely Diatonic. Consequently it receives no 
"colouring from the so-called musical accidentals jf and |?; 
"except when the latter is used from F upwards to avoid 
"the Tritone, and downwards to avoid the diminished fifth." 
Baini in his Memorie Storico- Criticize of Palestrina Vol. 
II. pag. 122 complains , that in some of the editions of 
the Choral books capricious alterations had been intro- 
duced, leaving nothing but a mere skeleton of the an- 
cient chant. "Some," he says "dreamt of putting b motte 
"before e (mi)] and then they should either contradict 
"themselves, or else place it also before a (la); and so 
"the very nature of Gregorian Chant becomes completely 

with C and F (VII. and VIII. Tones) and even more frequently; any 
one that knows the History of Plain Song must admit the same. In 
the II. vol. p. 155 (Geschichte der Musik) he writes : "So long as Gre- 
gorian Chant, the pure choral Song, was rendered in unison, it is well 
established that none other but the fixed Tones of each Church Mode 
according to the strict Diatonic system were adopted; as soon how- 
ever as they commenced to sing in parts, the difficulties of a strict 
diatonic chant began to be felt, and it had to seek the assistance of 
Medium Tones." And again in page 51: "The harmonic relations of 
Tonality in the modern sense, have got the mastery over our melodic 
treatment; the Gregorian was independent of them." 

*) Heee Schlecht, in a very closely reasoned paper published 
in the Monatshefte für Musikgeschichte, 1872, tries to elicit authority 
for the Diesis from a passage in Guido' s Micrologus, where speaking 
of irregular transpositions, he enumerates amongst the blunderers, 
those who "quasdam subductiones faciunt, in trito, quce dieses appel- 
lantur" But Heer Habeel in the 4 th edition of the "Magister Choralis", 
published 1873, says in a foot note, page 52, that he examined the 
most ancient exemplars of Gfuido's Micrologus in the Vatican Library, 
in Florence and Bologna, compared them with Gerbert's version, and 
found that this sentence was originally a marginal gloss inserted at 

4 least two centuries later, which subsequently found its way into 

1 the text. 


"altered; others scattered b molls, and b quadros (if), and 
"even \ (dieses) recklessly about and thus destroyed al- 
"most every vestige of the ancient mode." 

If recourse is had to the masters of the middle ages, 
who in the polyphonous treatment of the Gregorian 
melodies frequently use the accidental semitones, it must 
be borne in mind that in those cases they did not under- 
take the construction or arrangement of the entire melody,. 
(and therefore do not furnish the true version of the Gre- 
gorian Chant, as such) but only extracted melodic phrases 
from it, on which to establish their polyphonous compo- 
sitions. These very compositions themselves furnish un- 
deniable proofs that, even in their time, Gregorian was 
regarded as strictly Diatonic; for if they give the whole 
Gregorian melody — marked cantusfirmus, — to the Tenor, 
or some other leading voice, they leave it there untouched. 
Then the harmonic and contrapuntal effects had to be ar- 
ranged around that in such a manner, as that the full tone 
might be expressed in those places where the defenders 
of the Diesis would now seek to introduce a semitone. 1 ) 

The reproach of unmusical taste, or unscientific de- 
velopment of the same, cannot fairly be urged against 
the supporters of the pure Diatonic system; for if some 
passages sound hard or even rugged, the fault may be 
traced either to the bad rendering of it, to a disregard 
of the Rhythm, or to an injudicious organ accompaniment. 

Louis Schneider 2 ) (died A. D. 1864) writing to Herr 
Oberhoffer in Luxembourg said; "One thing I must impress 

*) These remarks can be proved by examples. See Palestrina's 
Hymns, the Choralis Constantimis of Henry Isaac, the Introits etc. 
of Constanzo Porta, Matteo Asola and others. The Proske Library 
in Ratisbon will furnish rich materials to any one that wishes to study 
this point closely. See also Witt, Musica Sacra, 1868, page 33 &c. 

2 ) Schneider was a very clever contrapuntist. His rules for har- 
monising Gregorian are most valuable. They were published in 1866 
(Frankfort-Hammacher) and styled "Gregorianische Choralgesänge" &c 


"upon you; i. e. to banish for ever and aye the Diesis 
"from Gregorian Chant, and fly the cross (the sign jj 
"in German is called Kreuz, cross) as the Devil would. 
"All that has ever been said or may yet be said in its 
"justification is vain, a delusion and a snare. Between 
"music external to the Church, and Liturgical Chant 
"there is and must be an impassable barrier, as great a 
"distinction as there is between Heaven and Earth, bet- 
"ween a secular banquet and the Last Supper. I beseech 
u of you never to be offended with the simple, earnest, 
"strictly diatonic, proscribed, poor garment of Christ, 
"the liturgical Song." 


CHAPTER 20 th . 

The Books of the Liturgy contain the Chants for 
all the functions which form part of the Catholic Liturgy. 
For centuries there did not exist an uniform or com- 
plete collection of these books, until the Sacred Congre- 
gation of Rites within the last twenty years or so sup- 
plied this deficiency by publishing a new and complete 
edition known under the title of editio typica, and com- 
prising all the authentic and official books of the Roman 
Chant. They are as follows. 

1. The Roman Missal, — Missale Romanum, or 
Mass Book, containing all the Lessons, Gospels, Prayers 
etc., the Canon of the Mass, the various Intonations of 
the Celebrant, the Chants of the Preface, Pater noster etc. 
Conformably to the Decree of the 26 th April 1883, all the 
Chants of the Missal even to the form of their notation, 
I are now obligatory for all. 


Pius V., in the year 1570, published the Missal 
with the alterations recommended by the Council of 
Trent. Its title was „Missale Romanum | ex decreto 
Sacrosancti Concilii [ Tridentini restitutum, | Pii Y. Pont. 
Max. J jussu editum. | Roime. Apud Hseredes Bartholomsei 
Ealletti, Joannem Variscum, et Socios." | 

The last leaf repeats the name of the printers and 
ends with the date MDLXX. 

Under Clement VIII. in 1604 another revised edition 
appeared Bomce ex typographic Vaticana, and a third 
and last under Urban VIII. , Romce ex typographic^ Camerce 
Apostolicce, 1634. The various alterations and improve- 
ments effected under Pius V., Clement VIII. and Urban 
VIII. served as a basis for the most recent edition 
published under the auspices of Leo XIII. It contains 
moreover the most recent rubrical directions, the Missce 
votivce per annum, those pro aliquibus locis recently in- 
troduced and finally all the chants carefully corrected. 
With reference to the Intonations and Chants of the 
Missal the Decree already cited of Ap. 26. 1883 restrains 
Editors and Printers from making any changes or altera- 
tions whatsoever; thus these Chants become obligatory 
for the universal Church. The same may be said for 
the Chants of the Ritual and Pontifical. 

2. The Roman Gradual, — Graduale Romanum, 
contains the chants of the Concentus, or those portions 
of the Liturgy of the Mass not to be sung by the Cele- 
brant or sacred ministers, but by the Choir. Hence in 
it, we have the Introits, Graduate, Tracts, Alleluias, Se- 
quences, Offertories and Communions of the entire Eccle- 
siastical year, and those proper to the several Festivals. 

The name Gradual was originally given to the Chant 
which followed the Epistle, from the fact, as some sup- 
pose, that the Cantor stood on the steps (ad gradus) of 
the Ambo or pulpit, whilst it was being sung. As this 
Chant was up to the end of the 6 th century, sung as a 
Solo by a Deacon, and as the Celebrant and assistants 
discharged no other liturgical function whilst it was being 
sung, but remained listening, this particular Chant ad 


Igradus must have been considered as most important. 
I All the other Chants occurring during the Holy Sacrifice 
«were performed by the choir in piano. 1 ) This circum- 
1 stance explains the fact, that the name of this impor- 
jtant chant passed on to the Book which contained it, 
I though later on, it included not only the Graduals, but 
also the other chants of the Mass. 

The Ordinarium Missae (fixed Mass Chants) has been 
[published separately in various forms large and small. 
I For Parish Churches there is published a useful Epitome 
lex Graduali Romano containing the chants for all solem- 
nities falling on Sundays and Holidays of obligation and 
lall Feasts which may fall on Sundays, on which days 
[only it would be for the most part required in these 
I churches. The Compendium Gradualis et Missalis Romani 
I reproduces the Epitome but in addition contains the 
(Prayers, Epistles and Gospels of the Feasts; and an 
I appendix from the Ritual, and the Proper for the Clergy 
I of Rome. - 

3. The Pontificate Romanum, a book containing 
■ the several functions proper to a Bishop. 

The melodies of the Pontificate were scrupulously 
['corrected according to the Decree of April 1883; so that 
[now the Antiphons, Responsories and other Chants of 
I the Pontifical correspond exactly with those of the Gra- 
\ duale and. AntipJionarium Bomanwm. For the convenience 
I of the clergy and choirs there are published separately 
I those portions of the Pontificate which contain the more 
I ordinary functions of Bishops, such as confirmation, minor 
I orders, Subdeaconship, Deaconship and Priesthood, the 
I consecration of altars and of churches. Every separate 
I extract contains the correct Gregorian Chant. 

4. The Rituale Romanum, — or Roman Ritual, 
I for the administration of the Sacraments, the burial 
I service &c. 

It was first edited under Paul V. 1614, and enlarged 
by Benedict XIV. 1752. The most recent edition of the 

V r i *) See Duchesne 1. c. page 161. 


Roman Ritual official and typica has been published, with 
the approbation of the Sacred Congregation of Rites, by 
Herr Pustet of Ratisbon 1884. 

Several portions of the Ritual are extracted there- 
from, and published separately for greater convenience; 
such as the Processionale Romanum which contains the 
chants for Processions, the approved Litanies, the prayers 
and chants prescribed for receiving the Bishop and other 
Canticles and Psalms. 

The extract, however, that will be found most gene- 
rally in demand, is the Exsequiale Romanum, or Ordo Ex- 
sequiarum, containing the Mass and Office of the Dead, 
and the ceremony of Interment of adults and children, j 
It is published in two forms either with the office of the 
Dead alone taken from the Antiplionarium or having in | 
addition the burial service from the Ritual. 1 ) 

5. The Cseremoniale Episcoporum published by 
order of Clement YIIL, Innocent X., Benedict XIII. was 
newly revised under Benedict XIV. and published as 
editio typica in 1886 under Leo XIII. It is one of the 
most important liturgical books, because it serves to 
complete those portions of the Missal, Breviary and 
Pontifical which contain Rubrics; consequently its in- 
structions bind under the same obligation as do the 
Rubrics themselves. 

Although the title would seem to indicate that it 
only refers to the functions proper to Bishops, never- 
theless its rules affect all churches whether cathedral or 
collegiate, monasteries, religious communities etc. For 
us especially it is particularly important, as in many 
places it contains the laws which regulate liturgical music; 
in fact Chapters 27. and 28. are exclusively devoted to 
Ecclesiastical chant, music and organ playing. 2 ) 

*) See K.-M. Jahrbuch 1887, pp. 88 et seqq., and the latin brochure 
of Joach. Solans de vi obligandi libri Cceremoniale Episcoporum (Fr. Pustet.) 

2 ) [For the special use of the Irish Clergy His Grace the Arch- 
bishop of Dublin has published a special Exsequiale extracted from the 
Editio typica of the S. E. 0., (Grill, Dublin) which has already reached 
a second edition.] 


Under the title Cantorinus Romanus we find pub- 
lished a collection of all the Gregorian intonations and 
[melodies which are of universal obligation. They are 
[extracted from the typical editions of the Missal, Pon- 
tifical, Ritual, and Cceremoniale Episcoporum. This book 
[constitutes so to speak the Canon of liturgical Chant, 
[and will serve for exercises to clerical students, and to 
[propagate still more widely the desired reform in Plain- 
I Chant according to the wish of the S. Congregation and 
I of the Holy See. 

6. The Antiphonarium Romanum, — or Roman 
[Äntiphonary, contains all the chants for the several 
portions of the Divine Office; — the Antiphons at Matins, 
Lauds, Vespers; the Invitatories, Responses, Psalmtones, 
etc. just as the Graduate contains the Chants for the 
Mass. 1 ) 

The 2 d volume of the official edition of the Antipli. 

\Rom. in Folio which, as the most needed, was the first 
published, contains: the Antiphons, Psalms, Hymns and 
Versicles of the so-called Horce diurnce, and in it are 

' united the two separate books which in old editions one 
should have recourse to namely the Psalterium 2 ) and the 
Antipli. Romanum. The first part of the 1 st vol. contains 
the Invitatories , Hymns , Antiphons , Versicles and Res- 
ponsories of Matins for the Proprium de Tempore] the 
second part for the Proprium and Commune Sanctorum. 

As extracts from the AntipJi. Bom. there are published 
in small handy editions : a) Vesper ale Romanum, b) 'Epi- 
tome ex Vesperali Romano, c) Officium Nativitatis, d) Of- 
ficium liebdom, sanctce, e) Officium Befunctorum (see above 
under 4). From the office of Holy Week, three separate 

x ) In the official edition the Papal Commission selected the edition 
of Petr. Liechtenstein, Venice 1585, but for the Eesponsories at Matins, 
the Antiph. Rom. Antverpice ap. Joachim Trogncesium, 1611, and the 
Directorium Chori. 

2 ) In Psalterium Romanum were found the Psalms for the Office 
de Tempore for the week, as well as the Hymns for the year and the 
Officium Defunctorum. Subsequently the Hymns were published se- 
v parately from the Psalterium. A third book was the Responsoriale. 


Fasciculi in small Folio, contain the four Passions, the 
nine Lamentations, and the Exsultet for Holy Saturday, 
after the model published at Rome in 1586 by Guidetti, 
"Cantus JEcclesiasticus Passionis D. N. J. C. secundum 
Matthceum, Mar cum, Lucam et Joannem" 

For Choirmasters, Singers and well instructed Laity 
there are small manuals with the entire office of Holy 
Week, with a German translation, and the chants printed 
in modern notation with the G clef. To bring together 
the principal Prayers and Chants of the Breviary and 
Antiphonary, there is now available a Compendium Anti- 
phonarii et Breviarii Romani taken from the typical edi- 
tions, and which contains in the order of the Breviary, 
Lauds, Vespers and small hours, with little Chapters, 
Versicles and Prayers for all Feasts and Days of the 
year which may fall on Sundays, as well as Matins for the 
three last days of Holy Week, and of Easter, Pentecost 
and Corpus Christi. 

A Cantatorium Romanum besides the full contents 
of the Compendium Gradualis et Missalis Bom. contains 
also the Matins and Lauds of the triduum sacrum, the 
Easter office and office for the Dead as well as Vespers 
for Sundays and Festivals and Complin. 

7. The Directorium Chori is the standard book 
for all Intonations of the Celebrant, Hebdomadarian and 
Chanters; it furnishes the ground plan for the Antipho- 
narium, in which all the Chants with the exception of 
the Responsories after the Lessons, at least in their 
opening phrase and indication of mode are to be found. 
Here we have indicated the Tones of the Psalms, the 
melodies of the Venite Exsultemus, of the Psalms, Ver- 
sicles, Lessons, Besp. brevia, Te JDeum, Prayers, Litanies, 
Gloria, Be missa est and so forth. The official edition 
(1888) added the text of all the Psalms, the whole 
melody of the Hymns, and the new Feasts; hence this 
book may be considered indispensable for the canonical 


CHAPTER 21 st . 

I. The Ecclesiastical year, is divided into three prin- 
cipal seasons, and all days and hours of these seasons, 
are a proximate or remote, anterior or posterior celebration 
of the three great central festivals: Christmas, Easter 
and Pentecost. The most proximate anterior celebration 
is the Vigil, which is only found with the older festivals, 
and not with those of comparatively recent date; such 
as Corpus Christi, and the Feast of St. Joseph etc. The 
most proximate posterior celebration is the octave, which 
closes on the eighth day after the Festival. 

The remote anterior and posterior celebrations of 
the three central Feasts, are the Sundays with their 
intervening Ferias, or Week-days. What the octave is 
to the Festival, the Feria is to the preceding Sunday. 
If the latter be ranked high so also are the subsequent 
Ferice-, and hence we have ferice majores and minores. 
To the first -mentioned belong, the ferice (or iveek-days) 
of Advent and Lent; the Wednesdays, Fridays and Satur- 
days of Quarter tense, and the Bogation days. 

Between the three great central festivals, other 
Feasts of our Blessed Lord, of the Blessed Virgin and 
of the Saints and Angels are inserted during the course 
of the year. 

The Ecclesiastical year begins with the first Sunday 
of Advent. In the week following the third Sunday we 
have the first Quarter tense] and after the fourth Sunday 
the Vigil of Christmas, then the Feast of Christmas, and 
a succession of Feasts with Octaves. The octave day of 
Christmas is the 1 st of January ; — feast of the Circum- 
cision of our Lord. On the 6 th of January we celebrate 
the Fpiphania Domini, or his manifestation to the Gen- 
stiles; and then follows the closing of the first great 


festival with the Sundays after Epiphany (Dom. post 
Epiph); the number of which is regulated by the time 
of Easter; it is sometimes more, sometimes less, but 
never can exceed six. 

The remote preparation for the Festival of Easter 
commences with Septuagesima Sunday, (70 th day before 
Easter) it includes Sexagesima, Quinquagesima and con- 
tinues up to Ash -Wednesday j (Feria IV. Cinerum) when 
the Church enters on the 40 days Fast (Quadragesima). 
Between the 1 st and 2 nd Sunday of Lent, we meet the 
second Quarter tense. After four Sundays, Passion- tide 
follows commencing with Passion-Sunday (Dominica Pas- 
sionis); the week following being called Passion-week, and 
then Palm- Sunday (Dominica Palmarum), commencing 
Holy Week (Hebdomada major)) during which, Holy Thurs- 
day (Feria V. in Coena Domini), Good Friday (Feria VI. 
in Parasceve) , and Holy Saturday (Sabbatum Sanctum) 
are specially solemnized. Easter (Pascha) has its octave, 
which closes on Low Sunday (Dominica in Albis), and 
then four Sundays follow. After the 4 th Sunday (or 5 th 
after Easter), we meet the Rogation clays, and Ascension 
Thursday, and on the 50 th day after Easter; — Whit- 
Sunday or Pentecost (Dominica Pentecostes) ; for which 
the days from Ascension day to the Vigil, including Sun- 
day within the Octave (Domin. infra Octavam Ascensionis), 
serve as an immediate preparation. 

The Octave of Pentecost includes the third Quarter 
tense and closes on Trinity Sunday (Festum Ss. Trinitatis): 
The Paschal Time closes with None on Trinity Eve. On 
the Thursday immediately following Trinity Sunday, the 
Church celebrates the Feast of Corpus Christi (Festum 
Ss. Corp. Christi), or Feast of the Most Holy Sacrament, 
which has an Octave, and then follow the Sundays after 
Pentecost, in regular succession to the number of 23; 
(the fourth Quarter tense occurring in September). Should 


there be more than 24 Sundays, between Pentecost and 
Advent, then after the 23 d Sunday, are inserted such 
Sundays after Epiphany, as could not be celebrated in 
their proper season, by reason of the proximity of Easter; 
commencing with the 3 d Sunday after Epiphany, if there 
be 28; with the 4 th if only 27; and so forth. The last 
Sunday after Pentecost (marked XXIV. et ultima) termi- 
nates the Ecclesiastical year. 

The Festivals or Feasts occurring between these 
three central Feasts, have not all the same rank or 
dignity, and consequently are not celebrated with equal 
solemnity. The Liturgy classifies them as simples (sim- 
plicia), semidouUes (semiduplicia) , and doubles] the last 
mentioned are again divided into doubles of the 1 st class 
(dupl. I. classis) and doubles of the 2 nd class (dupl. 2. classis), 
greater doubles and lesser doubles (duplicia majora et 
minora). The lesser doubles are marked in the calendar 
with the abbreviated word dupl. (duplex) \ the others are 
specially indicated. 

As the Church Festivals became so numerous that 
they could not all be celebrated by the people with abs- 
tinence from servile work and attendance at Mass, a 
further distinction was established, viz Festum in foro, 
public holiday, and Festum in choro, Church holiday. 

Every country or Diocese has moreover certain na- 
tional or local Feasts, which are indicated in the Calendar 
specially, and quoted as from the Office proper to such 
country or Diocese; e. g. ex proprio Hibernice, ex proprio 
Anglice etc. (from the proper of Ireland, or from the 
proper of England, etc.) 

II. The Ecclesiastical Calendar, or "Or do recitandi 
officium divinum Missamque celebrandi/' is a book neces- 
sary for every priest, that he may know the Office and 
Mass to be said every day in the year. We would also 
^add, that wherever the music in the Church is conducted 


Magister Choralis. ' 


according to the requirements of the Liturgy; (and there 
is no place where such ought not to be the case) every 
Organist or Choir Master, should likewise be provided 
with it, and familiarised with its use. 

[On the continent of Europe, each Diocese has its 
own special Calendar or Ordo; but in Ireland, England 
and Scotland, and the United States of America, a general 
Ordo for the whole country is compiled each year; those 
feasts which are specially celebrated in particular dioceses 
or localities, being indicated in smaller type. Moreover, 
as Organists and Choir Masters are not generally con- 
versant with the Latin language and Latin terminology; 
editions in English of the Ordo are published in Dublin, 
London 1 ) and New York, thus removing all excuse from 
those, who would study to have the Music of the Church, 
conformable to the Church's spirit and Liturgy.] 

The Ecclesiastical Calendar begins with the civil 
year on the l 8t of January (the date of the 1 st Sunday of 
Advent, the proper commencement of the Ecclesiastical 
year, being variable). The order of Feasts is regulated 
by the time of Easter; for, according as Easter ^occurs, 
Septuagesima Sunday, Ash Wednesday, Ascension Thurs- 
day, Pentecost, Corpus Christi, etc., are determined. These 
Feasts consequently are styled moveable Feasts (Festa 
mobilia). The several Directories or Ordos published, 
whether in Latin or English, use abbreviations to indi- 
cate the rank of the Feast, the Office to be said, whether 
proper or common, the colour of the vestments etc.; a 
key to which abbreviations is generally found at the 
beginning or end of the book. An Alphabetical list at the 
end of this book will furnish an explanation of most of 
the contractions used in the Latin or English Directories. 

*) The Catholic Directory Ecclesiastical Register and Almanac. 
London, Burns & Oates. 


CHAPTER 22 d . 



I. The Missale Bomanum is divided into six prin- 
cipal sections; so also the Graduelle Bomanum; namely: 
1) Proprium de Tempore contains the Masses for all 
Feasts, Sundays and Ferias of the regular Ecclesiastical 
year (tempus) from the 1 st Sunday of Advent to the last 
after Pentecost. Between Easter Saturday and Easter 
Sunday, the 2) Or do Missce with the Canon of the Mass 
is inserted. 1 ) 3) The Proprium Missarum de Sanctis, or 
special formulas for the Feasts of the B. M. V., the 
Saints, Angels etc.; from the 29 th of September (Vigil of 
St. Andrew the Apostle), to the 26 th of November (Feast 
of St. Peter of Alexandria). As most Feasts of Saints, 
even to the smallest Prayers and Versicles, have fixed 
formulas in common; so the 4 th section contains the Com- 
mune Sanctorum, or Common of Saints, which is thus 
subdivided: a) In Vigilia unius Apostoli (on the Vigil of 
an Apostle) ; b) Commune unius Martyris Pontificis (com- 
mon of a Martyr who was also Bishop); with two dif- 
ferent formulas ; c) Commune unius Martyris non Pontificis 
(common of a Martyr not a Bishop, with two forms); 
d) Commune Marty rum tempore Paschali. De uno Marty re 
(Feast of one Martyr in Paschal time, i. e. from Low 
Sunday to Pentecost); e) De pluribus Martyribus temp. 
Pasch. (of many martyrs in Paschal time); f) Commune 
plurium Martyrum extra temp. Paschale (of many Martyrs 
outside of Paschal time); g) Commune Confessor is et Pon- 
tificis (common of a Confessor and Bishop, with two dif- 
ferent Masses) ; h) Commune Doctorum (Common of Doctors) ; 

*) Or do Missce indicates that portion of the Liturgy of the Mass 
which is unchangeable. In the Graduate the regular Chants for the 
Kyrie, Gloria, Sanctus, Benedictus and Agnus Dei (Credo) are found at 
\ the end of the volume under the title 'Vrdinarium Missaz." 


i) Commune Conf. non Pontificis (Common of a Confessor 
not a Bishop, with two Masses) ; k) Missa pro Abbatibus 
(a Mass for Abbots); 1) Commune Virginum. Pro Virgine 
et Martyre (for a Virgin and Martyr, three Masses); 
m) Pro Virgine tantum (for a Virgin only, two formulas) 
n) Commune non Virginum. Pro una Mart, non Virg. 
(for a Martyr not a Virgin) ; o) Pro nee Virg. nee Mart. 
(for neither Virgin nor Martyr, e. g. holy widows) ; p) In 
Anniversario Dedieationis JEcclesicB (the anniversary of 
the Dedication of a Church). 

Then follows the fifth section, the Votive Masses 1 ) 
(Misses Votivce)] first for each day of the week; — for 
Monday in honour of the Holy Trinity, or for the Dead; 2 ) 
for Tuesday in honour of the Holy Angels; for Wednes- 
day in honour of the Holy Apostles SS. Peter and Paul; 
for Thursday in honour of the Blessed Sacrament; for 
Friday in honour of the Holy Cross or Passion of our 
Saviour; and for Saturday in honour of the Blessed Virgin; 
this last with five different formulas according to the dif- 
ferent seasons of the Ecclesiastical year. 3 ) After these 
come 13 Votive Masses for particular objects, e. g. the 
Election of a Pope, for the Sick, for Peace, for a Bride 
and Bridegroom &c, the Orationes diver see, Missce pro 
defunctis, the Ordo ad faciendam aquam benedictam and 
Benedictiones diversce. 

Then come Votive Masses for each day of the week, 
conceded to the whole Church by Decree of July 5 th 1883 
— Monday for the Holy Angels, Tuesday for the Apostles, 

x ) "Votive masses, are so called, because celebrated for some special 
purpose of impetration, thanksgiving-, or praise." Amber -ger, Pastoral- 
theologie, vol. II. p. 241. 

2 ) The Missa pro Defunctis is found in the Missal last of all the 
Votive masses, and in the Gradual at the end of the Ordinär. Misso?. 

3 ) From Advent to Christmas, from Christmas to the Purification, 
from the Purification (Feb. 2 nd ) to Easter, from Easter to Pentecost, 
from Pentecost to Advent. 


Wednesday for S 1 Joseph, Thursday for the B. Sacrament, 
Friday for the Passion, Saturday for the Immaculate 
Conception. These Votive Masses rank as semiduplicia; 
they should not be sung in the ferial Tone, the Gloria 
and Ite missa est is to be intoned as on a semidouble, 
except on Thursdays and Saturdays when the Gloria and 
Ite missa est de Beata is ordered. The Choir Master in 
case of doubt should ascertain before-hand what Mass 
formula is about to be used and what may be the rank 
of the solemnity. 

The sixth section embraces the Festivals for par- 
ticular places (Festa pro aliquibus locis), which are not 
celebrated by the universal Church, going from the 
8 th of December, to the 29 th of November. As an Ap- 
pendix or Supplement to the Missal or Gradual, we meet 
in the end, the proper for each Diocese or country, 
e. g. Proprium Hibernice, containing the Masses for the 
Irish Saints, whose Feasts may not be solemnized by 
the Church at large, but who are specially honoured in 

II. The Breviary, and also the Directorium Chori, 
the Antiph. Bom. and the extract for Vespers (Vesperale 
Bomanum) have exactly the same arrangement as the 
Missal. Before Proprium de Tempore (and instead of the 
Ordo and Canon in the Missal), we find the Psalterium 
Bomanum dispositum per Hebdomadam or Psalms, por- 
tioned out to each day of the week; and instead of the 
fifth section of the Missal (the Votive Masses), we have 
in the Breviary, the Office of the B. M. V., the Office 
for the Bead, the Litany of the Saints &c. Each day 
has its own Matins, Lauds, and canonical hours: Prime, 
Terce, Sext and None, Vespers and Complin. These several 
portions of the Divine Office will be more fully explained 
* in subsequent chapters. At the end of the Directorium 


Chori, Vesper ale and Antiphonarium , the fixed Chants 
and Intonations for the Psalms, Versicles &c. are collected 
together under the rubric "Commune Directorii Vespe- 
ralis, or Antiphonarii" with special pagination distin- 
guished by a star, thus, (*). 



CHAPTER 23 d . 

I. The Introit, l ) (Introitus, entrance), is an antiphonal 2 ) 
Chant, comprising an Antiphon, one verse of a Psalm, 
and the Doxology or Gloria Patri; 3 ) after which the 
Antiphon is repeated. At Easter, and during Paschal 
Time, the Antiphon of the Introit is terminated by a 
double Alleluia ; which will be found, with a suitable 
modulation for each mode, at pages 70* and 71* of the 
Gradual (8° edition), and pages 113* and seqq., Vol. II. 
of the Folio edition. 

*) In earlier times (See Duchesne 1.- c. p. 155) the Antiphon ad 
introitum was begun when the Celebrant left the Sacristy, and the 
entire Psalm connected with it sung whilst he moved on processionally 
to the altar; now only one verse of the Psalm is sung with the 
Gloria Patri. 

The Ccerem. Episc. Lib. II. cap. VIII. §. 30 remarks : "Cum vero 
Episcopus pervenerit ante infimum gradum altaris . . . cessat sonitus or- 
ganorum, et Chorus incipit Introitum." 

A valuable collection of Decrees on liturgical Chant may be seen 
in the Cäcilien-Kalender , 1879, art. of P. Utto Kornmüller "Kechts- 
kräftige Verordnungen über Kirchenmusik" and in a similar com- 
pilation of Ign. Mitterer, Eegensburg, Coppenrath, 1885. 

a ) i. e. to be chanted alternately by two choirs , or two divisions 
of a choir. 

3 ) During Passion Time, i. e. from Passion Sunday to Holy 
Thursday inclusive, and in Masses of the Dead, the Gloria Patri is 

The Tones for the Gloria Patri at the Introits are given in an 
appendix to the Graduale and with the Alleluja Tones for Paschal 
Time are also furnished on a detached sheet. 


On Ferias (week-days) and simple Feasts (simplicia) 
one Chorister 1 ) intones the Introit and sings alone up to 
the first upright lines drawn across the stave — ft—; on 
semidoubles and Sundays (when the Mass is of the Sunday, 
and not the Feast of a Saint &c.) two choristers chant 
this Intonation; whilst on Feasts of greater rank and 
solemnity, three or four unite in singing it; then the entire 
Choir falls in, and sings the Antiphon right through till 
they meet the second double bar =f[=i, and the Psalm 
verse indicated by the red letters Fs. preceding. The 
first half of this verse down to the colon, and the Gloria 
Fatri, are sung by one or more choristers as above, 
the full choir responding with the remaining half and the 
Sicut erat. 2 ) Then the Introit is repeated down to the 

II. The Introit is followed immediately by the Kyrie 
(ter — i. e. three times repeated), Christe (ter) and Kyrie 
(ter)] s ) the Ccerem. Episc. prescribes that at the Kyrie 
the organ may play the alternate Kyries in those seasons 
and on those occasions when the use of the organ is not 

OBSERVATION. In the Gr aduale Bomanum under 
the rubric Ordinarium Missce, we find the regularly 
recurring chants of the Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, 
Benedictus and Agnus Dei, arranged according to the 
rank or character of the Ecclesiastical Seasons and Feasts; 

*) Vide the Directions for using the Gradual printed in the com- 
mencement of the official edition. 

2 ) The rule is: "If on account of the alternations of the organ, 
any portion of the prescribed Text is not sung, it should be recited. 
When the organ is silent all should be sung." The two words em- 
ployed by the S. E. C. and the Cserem. (intelligibili voce and submissa 
voce) leave the loudness of the recitation an open question. 

3 ) This ninefold repetition of the Kyrie as it is in our present 
Liturgy is the remnant of a Litany, which according to most ancient 
custom (as on Easter and Pentecost Saturdays) was sung alternately 
before Mass (see Duchesne 1. c. p. 157). 


following the same order that the Ite missa est, and Bene- 
dicamus Domino preserve in the Missal: in all, V6 Masses 
or Mass Chants, and the Mass for the Dead. As Easter 
is the greatest festival, the first in order is the Mass to 
be used on week days from Holy Saturday to Saturday 
in albis (inclusive). Then the Gregorian Mass for the 
most solemn Festivals (festa solemnia). The third Mass 
is for festivals of high rank, though not the highest (festa 
duplicia), which may be varied with the fourth. The fifth 
and sixth Masses are exclusively for Festivals of the 
B. Y. M.; which may be either solemnia, duplicia, or 

If on any Sunday throughout the year (except the 
Sundays of Lent and Advent) the Office and Mass be of 
the Sunday, and not of the B. V. M. or any Saint; then 
the seventh Mass (in Dominicis infra annum) is to be sung. 

On Feasts of Saints (semidoubles) , the eighth Mass 
is used. On semidoubles (ferias) within Octaves, (not 
Octaves of the B. V. M.), and when the office is, de die 
infra Octavam, the ninth Mass is employed. The tenth 
Mass is for simple Festivals (ritu simplici). In the present 
arrangement of the Calendar they occur very seldom. 

On Ferias (work- days) throughout the year, except 
during Advent and Lent, the eleventh Mass is used. On 
the Sundays of Advent and Lent (Septuagesima to Quin- 
quagesima not included), the twelfth Mass; and on the 
Ferias of Advent and Lent the thirteenth. 

Then comes the Mass for the Dead (pro Defunctis) 
which is given entire, from the Introit to the Respon- 
sorium Libera. 

In most of these Masses the melody of the first 
Kyrie is very often the same as the Ite missa est or 
Benedicamus Domino, as in festis dupl., de Beata and 
the like. Whilst the Choir is singing the last Kyrie, 
the Celebrant goes to the middle of the altar, and the 
Kyrie 1 ) concluded intones the Hymn of the Angels, 2 ) or 
Gloria according to the rank of the Feast. 

J ) See Ccerem. Episc. Lib. II. Cap. VIII. par. 37, 38 & 39. 

*) The Text of the Gloria as that of the Kyrie originated in the 
Greek Church and at first was sung in Eome only at the first Mass 
of Christmas Day. 


III. The Gloria. The Priest sings the words "Gloria 
in excelsis Deo" and the Choir do not repeat these words 
but follow on with the words "Et in terra pax" 1 ) and 
sing all 2 ) the words right through to the end. 

The following are the various Intonations to be used 
by the Celebrant according to the rank of the Festival. 

Toni „Gloria in excelsis Deo". 
1) In Festis solemnibus et duplicibus. 

cclf f 





G16 - ri - a in ex-cel-sis De - o. 
In this Intonation there is a fall of semitone from 
the syllable a to in\ consequently it is a mistake to sing 
in to the note fa. 

2) In Missis B. Marice, also in Votive Masses of 
the B. Y. M., on Christmas Day, Corpus Christi, during 
their octaves, and whenever the Prcefatio B. V. M. or de 
Nativitate is to be sung. 3 ) 

gagfg g g g ab_c ag efg g 

^ =*g<^=* 

G16 - ri - a in ex - eel - sis De - o. 

The full tone Sol-fa (g-f), and the Semitone mi-fa 
(e-f) should be well fixed on the ear. 

3) In Dominicis, festis semiduplicibus, et infra Octavas, 
qace non sunt B. Marice. 

dgfefg fe d e f e d 

^—j *g — *— w= ^i 



ri - a in ex-cel-sis De-o. 

*) It is consequently unrubrical for the choir at High Mass or 
Missa Cantata to repeat the words Gloria &c, though in most modern 
concerted Masses, this is constantly done. 

2 ) S. B. C. 5. Julii 1631. The Ccerem. Episc. in I. Book, chap. 28, 
par. 9, permits the alternate playing of the organ provided that the 

verses not sung he recited submissa voce. 
3 ) S. E. C. 25. May 1877. 


4) In Festis simplicibus. 1 ) 

G16 - ri - a in ex- eel -sis De - o. 
The minor third mi-sol (e-g) should never be sung 
as if major (e-##). 

The Gloria is not sung on the Sundays of Lent and 

CHAPTER 24 th . 
When the Gloria is terminated (or according to 
season after the ninth Kyrie) the Celebrant (Priest) 
sings Dominus vobiscum, (Bishop) Pax vobis and the 
Choir answers JEt cum spiritu tuo. Dominus vobiscum or 
Pax vobis should always be sung on one note without 
any inflection thus: 

~f. Dö-mi-nus vo-bis-cum. 3$. Et cum spi T ri-tu tu - o. 

f. Pax vo-bis. 

This is immediately followed by the principal prayer 
of the day, the first of the three Collects, 2 ) with the 
response, Amen. 

The present Chapter is but a translation of the pre- 
scribed Toni Orationum contained in the official Directo- 
rium Chori and the typical edition of the Ccerem. Episc. 
(I. Book, chap. 27). 

The prayers may be sung in three ways in Tonus 
festivus, simplex ferialis and ferialis. 

*) This is also used in Votive Masses de Angelis, in Masses pro 
parvulis defunctis, and on the Ferias of Paschal time, when de ea. 
Baini mentions that the praxis in the Pontifical chapel is, on all oc- 
casions, to use the solemn Intonation, N° 1. 

2 ) Colligere plebem was the usual expression for a liturgical func- 
tion in presence of the faithful. The second occurs super oblata, after 
the Offertorium and introducing the Preface, and partly said in secret; 
the third is sung after the Communion (post communionem). 


1. Tonus festivus vel solemnis. 

The Prayers should be sung in Festive tone, quando 
officium est duplex, (I. II cl, maj., min.) vel semiduplex, 
vel de Dominica, in Matutinis, Missis 1 ) et Vesper is. 
His exceptis semper dicuntur in Tono feriali. 

This festive tone is monotonic admitting of two in- 
flections or "Accents;" the l Ht fa-mi-re-fa called the pun- 
ctum principale; the 2 nd fa-mi, called the semipunctum. 
The punctum principale is employed at that break in the 
prayer, where the sense of the words marks off a section 
or clause; in other words, where a colon occurs. This 
inflection should always be sung with emphasis, and 
rather slowly. 

The second inflection the semipunctum, is used in 
the second part or section of the prayer, usually indicated 
by a semicolon or comma. When a prayer is so short 
that both inflections cannot be introduced without destroy- 
ing the sense, the semipunctum is omitted. The semi- 
punctum should never be sung before the punctum in the 
body of the prayer; the punctum always comes first; 
e. g. In the Prayer Deus, qui nos conspicis, on the Feast 
of St. Calixtus, 14. October, the punctum principale falls 
on the word deficere, and then the semipunctum is not 
used. The same occurs on the 29 th of November and 

The punctum and semipunctum are used only once in 
each prayer, however many the clauses. This rule should 
be especially borne in mind in the protracted prayers 
of some new Feasts. At the close of the prayer, the 
accented syllable, (not the final syllable) of the last word, 
should be held out, by dwelling on the vowel; and a 
short pause made between it and the closing formula. 

*) Etiam in Laudibus et Missis votivis sol em nib us (ob causam 
qravem et publicam, et frequentiam populij. 


When the prayer closes with Per Dominum, and Per 
eumdem Dominum, the semipunctum comes first and falls 
on tuum, the punctum principale last and falls on Sancti 
Deus. In the conclusion Qui tecum vivit, or Qui vivis, the 
semipunctum is altogether omitted, and only the punctum 
used on Sancti Deus. 

If several prayers are to be sung sub unica conclu- 
sione, each one has its punctum, and semipunctum at the 
places indicated. 

The response Amen should be sung on one and the 


same note, ^5=^=3- 

Examples of prayers in the Festive tone. 

(In ritu dupl. aut semidiipl.) 



O-re-mus. Deus, qui hodiernam diem Apostolörum 

F E D F 


tuörum Petri et Pauli mar-ty - ri -.0 con-se-cra-sti: 

F E 



da Ecclesise tuse eörum in omnibus sequi prse-ce-ptum: 


ü— ■ ■ ■ 1 — *- 

-w ■ w-t- 

l i ' 

-J ' 

per quos religiönis sumpsit ex-or-di-um. Per Do-mi-num 

F E 




nostrum Je - sum Christum Fi - li - um tu - um : Qui te-cum 

F E D F 

$= ^±="=: ^— ■=febfc ±zq = ±z^^ 

vi-vit et regnat in u-ni-ta-te Spi-ri-tus sancti De -us, 



per o-mni - a sse - cu - la sse - cu - 16 - rum. A-men. 


2. Tonus simplex ferialis. 

The prayers in this tone , also called Tonus ferialis 
misses, are sung without any inflection whatever, and are 
purely Monotonie. Where a punctum or semipunctum 
would be used in the festive tone, here a pausa or 
suspirium is substituted. There is no need of giving an 
example of this intonation as all the syllables are sung 
| to the same note. The Tonus simplex ferialis is used: 
1) in Festis simplicibus and cliebus ferialibus\ 2) in Missis 
Defunctorum\ 3) for all the prayers at the blessing of 
Candles and Palms (Candlemas Day and Palm Sunday), 
which close with, Qui tecum vivit, Per Dominum no- 
strum de, or clausula major; 4) for the prayer Deus a 
quo et Judas, on Good Friday, as well as the omnipotent 
immediately following, and the Libera nos after the Pater 
noster\ 7) for the prayers that occur before the Mass on 
Holy Saturday and Vigil of Pentecost, at the end of the 
Prophecies, and at the blessing of the Water; 1 ) 6) for 
all the prayers of the Officium, Defunctorum, of the 
Litanies, Processions &c. if they terminate with the clau- 
sula major; as for example, on All Souls Day, and the 
Rogation Days. In a word the Tonus simplex is to be 
used whenever we have the clausula major and the Tonus 
solemnis not prescribed. 

3. Tonus ferialis. 

In this form of Intonation, all the words of the 
prayer are, as in the previous case, sung to one note, 
except the last word and the ending or close; 2 ) where 
the voice falls a minor third. 

1 ) The prayers at the blessing of the fire are simply read, not 

2 ) The ending of prayers in these cases, where the ferial intonation 
should be used, is always: Per Christum Dominum nostrum, or Per 
eumdem Christum Dominum nostrum, or Qui vivis et regnas in scecula 
sceculorum, and is called the clausula minor. 


Example of the Tonus ferialis. 


Concede, misericors Deus, fragilitäti nostrse presidium: | 
ut qui sanctse Dei Genitricis memöriam ägimus, | inter- 
cessiönis ejus auxilio | a nostris iniquitätibus 


re-sur-gä-mus. Per e - um- dem Christum Do- mi- num. 

no-strum. 1^. A- men. 

This Intonation is used: 1) With the prayers sung 
after the four Anthews of the B. Y. M. 2) For the prayer 
Dirigere at Prime. 3) In the Office of the Dead, at 
Vespers (Matins), Lauds, Libera, when the clausula minor 
is annexed. 4) For the prayers after the Litanies with 
clausula minor. 5) At the Asperges or Vidi aquam on 
Sundays. 6) After the Mandatum on Holy Thursdays. 
7) Before and after the blessing of the candles, (Feast 
of the Purification) ashes, and Palms when the prayers 
close with the clausula minor; and at Benediction, or 
expositio Ss. Sacramenti, out of Mass time, when the 
prayers are terminated by the clausula minor. When 
several prayers are sung in succession in Tono feriali, 
then this inflection of the minor Third is only made on 
the last word of the last prayer. The Ccerem. Episc. 
admonishes: Begulare autem est, ut in voce gravi et com- 
petenti, interposita aliqua mora in fine cujuslibet clausula, 
et prcesertim in clausula finali, cum decor e et gravitate 
recitentur orationes. 

OBSERVATION I. Before the seven prayers of 
Good Friday, after the Prophecies on Holy Saturday, at 
the blessing of candles on the 2 nd of February (if after 
Septuagesima), and in the Masses of Quarter tense extra 
tempus pasch. the following is sung by the Celebrant, 
Deacon and Subdeacon. 


Sacerdos. Diacoiius. Subdiaconus. 


O - re-mus. Fle-cta-mus ge-nu - a. Le - vä - te. 

The full tone D-C, and the minor third A-C, should 
be well practised; and the fourth (P-C) should never be 

OBSERVATION II. At the Oratio super populum, 
(cantata Post-communione in missa deferia temp. Quadrag.) 
the Deacon sings after the Oremus of the Celebrant. 

Hu- mi - li - ä - te cä - pi - ta vestra De - o. 

OBSERVATION III. On Good Friday the prayers 
commencing with Oremus, are sung to a peculiar intona- 
tion, which in the official edition of the Offic. Hebdom. 
sanctce is given for each prayer, but here it will be suf- 
ficient to give one, as they are all sung in the same way. 

I. Oratio. p E D E 

Oremus, dilectissimi nobis | pro Ecclesia sancta De - i: 

ut e - am Deus et Dns noster pacificäre | 

adunäre, et custodire dignetur toto or-be ter- 

jfe=ppM=p=j=q — *— *- JB:====izi?=H= i :=: » pi<4 1 

ra-rum: sub-ji- ci - ens ei principätus, et po-te-stä-tes: 

detque nobis quietam et tranquillam vi-tam de-genti-bus, 
E C D E 

glorificäre Deum Patrem omni-po - tentem. 0- re-mus, etc. 

See Observation L 


The prayer immediately following is then sung in 
Tono simplici feriali, on the one note D. 

The 4 th prayer pro Bomano Imperatore is omitted 
ob sublatum Momanum Imperium. ! ) 

CHAPTER 25 th . 

I. The Epistle is sung on one note without any change 
or inflection; 2 ) except, before a mark of interrogation, 
where the accentus inter rogativus is introduced. This 
inflection is made by falling a semitone, and then return- 
ing to the reciting note. If the sentence close with a 
monosyllable, the inflection is made on it; if with a word 
of many syllables, the voice falls the semitone on the 
accented syllable of such word; e. g. 

Tonus Epistolae. 

-E|— ■-- Mhr-M- f l * n 

Le-cti-o li-bri sa-pi-en-ti- se. Quis est hie et laudäbi- 

Quid igitur 
Mulierem fortem quis 


£ : 


mus e - urn? Dedit illi coram prsecepta, et legem vitse 


Finis. Slowly and well sustained. 


et di-sci-pli-nse. 

r ) Inter ceteras orationes in Missa Prcesanctificatorum minime decan- 
tari 'potest particularis oratio pro Episcopo; alia vero particularis pro suo 
Rege substituens illi pro Romanorum Imperatore in Missali appositce, sine 
approbatione ac apostolica venia dici non licet. S. B,. C. 11. Sept. 1874. 

2 ) If assistant ministers are wanting, the Celebrant sings both 
Epistle and Gospel, but is recommended to sing the Epistle on a lower 
tone to that of the prayers preceding. By a recent Decree it is per- 
mitted to read the Epistle in a Missa Cantata. 


IL After the Epistle or Lesson, comes the Gradual 
which in earlier times was sung by a Deacon, but since 
Gregory the Great's time by one of the Cantores. 1 ) This 
for the most part is sung to a prolonged melody, and 
frequently touches the extreme limits of the Gregorian 
compass. Two chanters intone the Gradual, that is, sing 
the first word or words until they meet the double bar 
j or line drawn across the stave =|[==; then the full choir 
joins in and sings down to the J or Gradual-verse, which 
is sung by the chanters only. Should the Gradual be 
followed, as is mostly the case, by two Alleluias and a 
verse of a psalm; then the Chanters sing the first Alleluia 
down to the neuma 2 ) or sigrizgE; the Choir repeats the 
same Alleluia, and continues the neuma following, but 
only on the vowel a. Then the Chanters intone the 
verse down to the sign EpE, and the Choir continues it 
to the end; — the Chanters repeat the Alleluia to the 
neuma; the Choir falls in and sings the neuma only, on 
the vowel a. From Septuagesima, instead of the double 
Alleluia and verse, the Tract should be sung; each verse 
of which is intoned by the Chanters, and continued by 
the Choir. A recitation in chanting tone is permitted. 

*) The typical edition of the Co?rem. Episc. permits the organ to 
play altematim after the Epistle, provided the Text not sung be 
recited. Other Decrees of the Sacred Congregation on this point are: 

1) Turrit. An in celebratione solemni Missce Defunctorum possit ali- 
quid brevitatis causa omitti de eo, quod notatur in Graduali? Et S. B.C. 
resp. nihil omittendum, sed Missam esse cantandam prout jacet in Missali. 
Die 5. Julii 1631 ad 5. 

2) Conimbricen. Dub. An in Missa Conventuali cani semper debeant 
Gloria, Credo, totum Gr aduale, Offertorium, Prcefatio et Pater noster? 
Affirmative juxta prcescriptum Cceremonialis Episcoporum et amplius. Die 
14. Aprilis 1753 ad 2. 

3) S. Marci. Tr actum integre canendum, quum Organum non pul- 
satur. Die 7. Sept. 1861 ad 15. 

2 ) We have already explained the various significations of the 
word neuma. Here it is used for the group of notes sung to the final 
) vowel of the word Alleluia, by way of prolonged jubilation. 

Magister Choralis. O 


In Paschal Time the Gradual is omitted, and only th< 
Alleluias and verse sung, in the manner just described; 
but the verse is followed immediately by a new special 
Alleluia and a second verse. This special Alleluia is intoned 
by the Chanters down to the neuma, or sign EpE, the 
Choir does not repeat it but vocalizes the neuma to the 
vowel a\ then the Chanters intone the verse as before, 
and the special Alleluia is repeated with neuma. 

The Alleluia and verse differ in the character of the 
melody, and mostly in the modus, from the Gradual to 
which they may be annexed. 

"The last syllable of the last Alleluia by being broken 
"up into several notes, is held out in a long protracted 
"chant . . . This prolongation of the Alleluia was called 
"Sequence . . . Later on however, words appropriate to 
"the Festival were supplied to this protracted chant, to 
"which the name Sequence was restricted ... By degrees 
"every Sunday and Festival had its proper Sequence, 
"until the correction of the Missal, when only four were 
"retained in use." 1 ) 

The Sequences in earlier times were also called 
Prosce\ some of them were composed by NotJcer Balbulus 
(A. D. 912). Pre-tridentine Missals have as many as one 
hundred such; however, the general Reform of the Missal 
ordered by Pius V., eliminated all but the five 2 ) best 
and most beautiful. 

2 ) Amberger, Pastoraltheologie. II. Vol. p. 97. 

2 ) These five are : Victimce Taschali Landes, of Wipo (11 th century) 
for Easter; Veni Sancte Spiritus, (11 th cent. [?]) for Pentecost. Lauda 
Sion, of St. Thomas of Aqnin (13 th century) for Corpus Christi; and 
the Stabat mater dolorosa of Jacopone (end of 13 th cent.) for the Seven 
Dolours of the B. V. M. The Sequence Dies irce may not be classed 
with the above; it is proper to the Mass for the Dead. As the 
last verse of the Dies irce contains a prayer for the departed, it must 
always be sung. The descnptive or dramatic verses may be omitted. 
Schubiger' s work: u Die Sängerschule von St. Gallen" affords a great 
deal of information regarding the Sequences. 


These truly divine poems are wedded to equally 
divine melodies. 

III. The Gospel admits of three inflections: 1) before 
a mark of interrogation, 2) before a full stop, and 3) at 
the termination. 

Before a mark of interrogation, the voice falls from 
j the reciting note half a tone, Do-Si, and returns imme- 
diately to the same note as in the Epistle; before a period 
or full stop, it falls a minor third, — Do-La, and returns 
at once to the reciting note Do, without any intermediate 
Si. The inflection should not be made later than the 
fourth syllable before the period, nor sooner than the 
sixth last syllable; 1 ) the voice falls the minor third, and 
then returns to the reciting note, but with an inter- 
mediate Si, and these notes should be sung slowly and 
impressively. If the sentence closes with a monosyllable 
or indeclinable Hebrew word, the inflection should be 
made on the second last syllable. 

Tonus Evangelii. 

y. Do-mi -nus vo-bis-cum. 1$. Et cum spi-ri - tu tu - o. 

y. Sequentia sancti Evangelii se-cun-dum Matthge-um, 
" " " " Jo-an-nem, 

1$. Gloria ti - bi, Domi-ne. 

Initium. Interrogatio. 

i — B — a — i — i — h-jE — *■*— " w — ^ 

se - cün-dum Marcum. Quid ergo erit no -bis? 

Lu-cam. Nonne decern mundäti sunt? 

*) The Direct. Chori remarks: non fit depressio vocis a fa ad re 
(here it is Do-La, same interval as Fa-Re, F-D) ante 6 syllabam . . . 
', nee post quartam. 



Mediatio communis. 


Hi autem qui portä-bant ste-te-runt. Ille autem dixit: 

Mediatio in monosyllabis. a he Finalis. 

Quia Prophe-ta est. Et vitam seternam pos - si - de - bit. 
Filii A-bra-ham. Et qui se humiliat ex - al-tabi-tur. 

Non potest meus es-se di-sci-pulus. 

OBSERVATION. The Passion of our Lord, accord- 
ing to the four Evangelists, is sung in Holy Week in a 
peculiar manner. Three Priests or Deacons, 1 ) divide the 
Text between them in such a way, that one chants the 
words spoken by Our Saviour, another the narrative of 
the Evangelist, and the third the words spoken by other 
individuals, such as Peter, Pilate &c. the Jews or the 
Synagogue. In the Missal these three divisions are marked 
thus, X (Christus), E ( Evangelist a) , T (Turba), or * 
(Christus), C (cantor or chronista), S (succentor or synagoga), 
or S (Salvator), E (Evangelist a), Ch (Chorus), or finally 
B (vox bassa, Christus) M. (v. media, Evang.), A. (v. alta, 
the Turba). Those passages in which a multitude or 
number of individuals are represented speaking, may be 
sung by a special choir to the harmonised arrangement 
of vittoria, or Suriano, or other such composers. 

William Durandus Bishop of Menda, who died in 
Eome on the 1 st of November 1296, in his Bationale Divin, 
Offic. lib. 2. cap. de fer. 2. post Dominic, in ramis pal- 
marum, testifies that even at that remote period, u non 
legitur tota passio sub tono evangelii, sed cantus verborum 
Christi dulcius moderantur; evangelistm verba in tono ev- 
angelii proferuntur; verba vero impiissimorum judceorum 
clamose, et cum asperitate vocis." 

(See Baini, Vol. II p. 110.) 

l ) Or the Celebrant as Christus, Deacon and Subdeacon (if he have 
the orders of a Deacon) the other parts. 


The Tonus passionis is as follows. 1 ) 



C Pässi - o Döini-ni nostri Je-su Christi se-ciindum Matthse-um. 

>{« Tu di - - eis. S Cru - ci - fi - ga - tur. 

IV. After the Gospel the Celebrant intones the Credo 
in imum Deum, 2 ) if the Rubric should prescribe it, and 
the Choir answers, commencing with the word Patrem. 

The official edition of the Gradual contains, besides 
the first form of chanting the Credo, usually found in 
most Graduals, three others written in the same Tone 
or Mode (IV.). iVny one of these can be selected by the 
Choir. 3 ) The intonation of the Credo is as follows: 

G E F E D Ga a 

Cre-do in u-numDe - urn, 

The Choir immediately follows with the words Patrem 
omnipotentem, and sings all the words 4 ) without abbre- 
viation to the end. 

*) A very useful edition of the four passions in ML was brought 
out in Eome 1838 by Alfieri "Cantus passionis" This has been repro- 
duced by Pustet in Ratisbon. 

2 ) The singing of the Credo began in the Eonian Liturgy in the 
first half of the 11 th century. Berno of Reichenau relates as an eye- 
witness that the Emperor Henry II. induced Benedict VIII. (1012 to 
1024) to introduce this custom (S. Patrolog. Migne, vol. 142, p. 1060.) 

3 ) For the same purpose the arrangements of the melody made 
by Ludovico Viadana can be used. The author of this Manual edited 
twenty of these in Gregorian and modern notation, published by Pustet, 
and Joseph Hanisch wrote an Organ accompaniment which may be 
had from the same publisher. 

4 ) The typical edition of the Ccerem. Episc. (28. chap. 1 st Book, 
par. 10) expressly observes; "In the singing of the Credo the Organ 
must not play the alternate verses, but all the Text must be sung." 

The Decrees of Councils on this point are numerous; and there 
is quite a series of Decrees of the Sacred Congregation bearing on 
the same e. g. — An sit toleranda consuetudo ut Symbolmn sub organo 
moduletur? Resp. Abusum hiiusmodi minime tolerandum, sed omnino per 


V. As soon as the Credo is terminated, the Celebrant 
sings Dominus vobiscum, and the Choir responds. The 
Celebrant then introduces the Offertory by Oremus, as 
follows : 

^q z ±zBz = ="=q=^ = fc=i=z=q =g=iM=q 

y. Dominus vo-biscum. I£. Et cum spi-ri-tu tu- o. O-remus. 

The Offertory consists of an extract from the Psalms 
or some other portion of Scripture, and all the Offertories 
assigned to each day and Feast are contained in the 
Graduate. Like the Introit, it is intoned by one, two or 
three and four Chanters according to circumstances, and 
then continued to the end by the full Choir. In Paschal 
time an Alleluia is added, which if not printed after the 
Offertory of the day, may be found at the end of the 

OBSERVATION. A custom very generally prevails 
of singing a Motet instead of the Offertory, or after the 
Offertory and before the Preface. The first mentioned 
practice is not allowable, as the Offertory prescribed for 
the day should be sung and may not be substituted. If 
time however permit, it is allowable after the Offertory 
either to repeat it, or to sing a Motet suitable to the 
Festival. [Thus, if it be a Feast of the B. Sacrament, 
an salutaris or Ave verum &c, if of the B. V. M. an 
Ave Maria, Alma Virgo &c; but we fail to see the ap- 
propriateness of the Quis est homo on Christmas Day, or 
of the Inflammatus on Easter Sunday. 1 )] 

Episcopum provideri, ut integre intelligibili voce symbolumdecantetur, ita 
ut a populo distincte audiri valeat. Die 10. Mart. 1657. — An cum 
dicitur Symbolum in Missa sit intermiscendum Organum? Resp. Symbo- 
lum integre canendum etiamsi pulsetur Organum. — Die 7. Sept. 1861. 
■ — An sonus Organi toto rigore possit intermisceri cum cantu, quando in 
Missa solemni seu Pontificali integrum Symbolum in notis seu in cantu 
gregoriano et firmo cantatur in chore- ? E,esp. Affirmative. Die 22. Mart. 1862. 
*) Dub. Potestne tolerari praxis, quod in Missa solemni, praeter can- 
turn ipsius Missce, cantetur in Choro a musicis aliqua laus vulgo dicta 
aria, sermone vernaculo? S. E. C. respondit 22. Martii 1862: Negative, 
et abusum eliminandum. 


CHAPTER 26 th . 

The Preface, as its name indicates, is an introduction 
to the Canon of the Mass. Its commences with an anti- 
phonal chant between Priest and People (choir). Both 
text and melody are of very ancient date. 

The Intonation or Chant of the Preface is of two 
kinds: Solemn (cantus solemnis or festivus), and Ferial 
(cantus ferialis). 

The Missal contains eleven Prefaces, differing some- 
what in text, according to the character of the season or 
Festival; viz for Christmas, Epiphany, Lent, Passion-tide, 
Plaster, Ascension, Pentecost and Trinity (which serves 
also for Sundays throughout the year) , for Feasts of the 
B. V. M., of the Apostles, and the Prcefatio communis or 
Preface generally used, when no special preface is pre- 

We give here the Chant for all 1 ) the Prefaces, in 
so far as the text varies. The learner should be care- 
ful to sing the first interval, a minor third (A-C, La-Do) 
correctly; and the recurring full tone from D to C, should 
not be diminished by sharpening the C. 

The Celebrant should also be careful not to intone 
the Per omnia, at too high a pitch; as by reason of the 
continuous ascent of the melody (II. Tone) it reaches to 
a minor sixth from the initial note A; and if this be 
taken too high, the falling and weakening of the voice 
during the course of the Chant, will lead to untunefulness 
and precipitation ; neither should he make the first inter- 

l ) The Prefaces for the blessing- of Palms, and of the Baptismal 
Pont, can be learned from the Missal. The Prefaces given here are 
taken from the most recent Eoman edition of the Missal approved 
of by the Sacred Congregation of Kites; and are a faithful reprint 
of the work compiled by Ghiidetti: Cantus Prcefationum. Romce. Jac. 
Tornerii. 1588. 


val a fourth G-C, as is too commonly done. The accented 
syllables should be specially attended to. 

1. De Nativitate. 

From Christmas to Epiphany (except the Octave Day of St. John the 
Evangelist), on the Purification, on Corpus Christi and during its Octave 
(if no Festival occur having a proper Preface), on the Feast of the Trans- 
figuration, and of the Holy Name, the following Preface is sung. 

A C D E 


: 1 : 




: 1 : 

Per ö-mni - a see - cu - la sse - cu - 16 - rum. I£. A-men. 





f. Dö-mi-nus vo -bis -cum. I£. Et cum spi-ri-tu tu - o. 

def e de de e def e e de de 

^=i^»=i1-^i =W=iNl 


f. Sur - sum cor - da. 1$. Ha - be - mus ad Do - mi - num. 

d dc e def e e d de cd e de d 





*f : . Grä-ti - as a - gä-mus Dö-mi-no De - o no-stro. 






I£. Di-gnum et ju-stum est. Ve-re dignum et ju-stum 




est, ae-quum et sa-lu- tä-re, nos ti-bi semper, et 

*=*=$ -* ■ W =r^=g=pJ| rrfcj: 

u - bi - que grä - ti - as ä - ge-re , Dö-mi-ne sancte , Pa-ter 



o-mni-po-tens se-ter-ne De - us. Qui -a per in-car- 


na-ti Ver-bi my-ste-ri-um, no-va men-tis nostrae 6-cu- 






lis luxtu-se ela-ri-tä-tis m-fül-sit: ut dumvi-si-bi-li-ter 






De -um cognö-sci-mus, per hunc in in-vi-si-bi-li-um a-mö- 




3 - » .*■■ »- ga g 

rem ra-pi-ä-mur. Et id-e-0 cum Ange-lis et Archän- 


-M — * — ■- 




ge - lis, cum Thro-nis et Do-mi-na-ti - 6-ni-bus, cumque 


j^ 3S g ^ ! ^=gE li 


-*— *- 

o-mni mi - li - ti - a coe - le - stis ex - er - ci - tus , hymnum 

glö-ri - se tu - se cä - ni-mus , si - ne fi - ne di- cen-tes. 
2. De Epiphania. 

On the Feast of the Epiphany and during the Octave. 

Per omnia etc. Vere dignum et justum est, seqiium et sanitäre, 
nos tibi semper et ubique grätias ägere, Dömine sancte, Pater omni- 
potens, seterne Dens. (As at page 120.) 





Qui - a, cum u - ni - ge - ni - tus tu - us in substan-ti - a 






nostrse mor-ta - li - tä - tis ap-pa-ru-it, nova nos immor- 

ta-li-ta-tis su-se lu-ce re-pa-ra-vit. Etid-e-oetc. 
3. In Quadragesima. 

From the first Sunday of Lent (Dom. I. Quadrag.), to Passion-Sunday T 
the following Preface is sung on all Feasts (duplex and semiduplex), which 
have no proper Preface: 

Per omnia etc. Vere dignum et justnm est, seqiium et sanitäre, 
nos tibi semper et iibiqne grätias ägere, Dömine sancte, Pater oinni- 
potens, aeterne Dens. (See page 120.) 




<j=j^=*= pc 

Qui cor-po -rä - li je - jü - ni - o vi - ti - a cöinpri-mis, 



^=p jp^=)i=N=^=i=q : 

: q=*=^ =3 p*==^ 

mentem e-le-vas, vir -tu- tern lar-gi-ris, et prse-mi - a: 





-*— t- 

Per Chri-stum Do-mi-num nostrum. Per quem ma -je- 




stä-tem tu - am lau-dant An-ge - li, ad-6-rant Domi-na- 

ti - 6-nes, tre-munt po-te-sta-tes. Cce-li cos-lo-rumque 




vir-tü-tes, ac be-ä-ta Se-ra-phim, so - ci - a ex-sul-ta- 






ti- 6 -ne con-ce-lebrant. Cum qui-bus et nostras vo-ces, 





ut ad-mit-ti jü-be-as, de -pre - cä-mur, süp-pli-ci 


fte= ^— H — * g| =^£ 

con-fes-si - 6 - ne di-cen-tes. 

4. De Cruce. 

On Passion and Palm-Sunday, on Holy Thursday, and on all Feasts, 
(duplex and semid.) not having a special Preface, which may be celebrated 
during Passion time; also on the Feasts of the Holy Cross, of the Sacred 
Heart, and of the Precious Blood, the following is sung: 

Per omnia etc. Vere dignum et justum est, sequum et salutäre, 
nos tibi semper et ubique grätias ägere, Dömine sancte, Pater onmi- 
potens, seterne Deus. (See page 120.) 






Qui sa- lu- tern hu-ma-ni ge-ne-ris in li-gno Cru-cis 

con-sti - tu - i - sti : ut un-de mors o - ri - e - bä - tur, inde 



^ ==^=^=^=ic|^=fc^ 

vi-ta re-sür-ge-ret: et qui in li-gno vin-ce-bat, in ligno 


:fj=^p*=t*= ^=K=fr =--i=*— ^— »ff 

quoque vin-ce-re-tur: Per Christum Do-mi-num nostrum. 

Per quern etc. 

5. In die Paschse. 

From Easter Saturday to Saturday in Albis, on Sundays till Ascension, 
and on all Feasts (dupl. and semid.) during this time, not having a proper 
Preface, the following is sung: 

Per omnia ssecula etc. (See page 120.) 




Ve-re dignum et ju-stum est, aequnm et sa-lu-tä-re: 


^fcJ^-fc-i^ HCiW 


Te qui-dem D6mi-ne omni tempo-re, sed in hac po-tis- 



*— M— W— *- 




si- mum di - e *) glo-ri - 6 - si - us prse - di - cä - re, cum Pascha 






nostrum im-mo - la - tus est Chri-stus. Ipse e-nim ve-rus 





est A-gnus, qui abs-tu - lit pec - ca - ta mun-di. Qui 

mortem nostram mo - ri - en-do de-strü-xit, et vi - tarn re- 


sur-gen-do re - pa - rä - vit. Et ideo etc. 
6. De Ascensione. 

From Ascension Thursday to the Vigil of Pentecost (exclusive) and on 
all intervening Feasts, not having a special Preface, the following is sung: 

*) Sabbato s.: in hac potissimum node; per Oct, Pasckse, ut supra; 
Dom. in Albis ac deinceps: in hoc potissimum glonosius . . . 


Per omnia etc. Vere dignum et justum est, sequum et sanitäre, 
nos tibi semper et ubique grätias ägere, Dömine sancte, Pater omni- 
potens, seterne Deus. (See page 120.) 





■ ■ 


Per Chri-stum Do - mi-num nostrum. Qui post re-surre- 

■ K m 



cti - 6-nem su-am ö-nini-bus di-sci-pu-lis su-is ma-ni- 





festus ap-pä-ru-it, et ipsis cer-nen-ti-bus est e-le-vä-tus 
in coe-lum, ut nos di-vi-ni-tä-tis su-se tri-bü-e-ret es- 

se par-ti- ci-pes. Et ideo etc. 

7. De Pentecoste. 

From the Vigil of Pentecost to the following Saturday, (inclusive): 

Per omnia etc. Vere dignum et justum est, sequum et salutäre, 
nos tibi semper et ubique grätias ägere, Dömine sancte, Pater omni- 
potens, seterne Deus. (See page 120.) 




-■— ■ 

Per Chri - stum Do - mi-num no- strum. Qui a-scendens 



-*— N 

* — J^-H- fr— »E p<= j:=i=i: 

su-per omnes coe-los, sedensque ad dex-te-ram tu - am pro- 








mis-suin Spi -ri- tum sanctum ho-di- er-na di-e in fi- 




li-os ad-o-pti-ö-nis ef-fu-dit. Quaprö-pter pro-fü-sis 




*— + 

gäu-di - is, to-tus in orbe terrärum mun-dus exsül-tat. Sed 






et su-pernse virtu-tes atque an-ge-li-cae Po-te-sta-tes, 

hymnum glö-ri-se tu-se con-ci-nunt, si - ne fi-ne di-centes. 
8. De SS. Trinitate. 

On Trinity Sunday, and on all Sundays throughout the year not 
having a special Preface. 

Per omnia etc. Vere dignum et justum est, sequum et salutäre, 
nos tibi semper et ubique grätias ägere, Dömiiie sancte, Pater omni- 
potens, seterne Dens. (See page 120.) 



n— ■- 


Qui cum u-ni-ge-ni-to Fi-li-o tu-o, et Spi-ri-tu saucto, 


■ ^-m-n 


unus es De -us, u-nus es Dö-mi-nus; non in u-ni - us 

$ -J L_ *— * zz^=W^Mtf^-1C=p=li==^<=^=W 



sin-gu-la-ri-tä-te per-sö-nse, sed in u-ni -us Tri-ni-tä- 


* f^=s3 i=z=dq= *==s=3 =±=q=&=^++=± 

te substan-ti-se. Quod e-nim de tu- a glö-ri-a, re-ve- 

länte te cre-dimus, hoc de Fi-li-o tu - o, hoc de Spi- 

^-^~N~p j=jp<=W= 

ri-tu sancto, si-ne dif - fe-ren-ti - a dis-cre-ti - 6 - nis sen- 

fr=jpf=i= ff 




. ut 





ö-ne ve-rse, 

sem-pi ■ 






.Jt~. w~ 





*m *M "M 


— *- 


~1 _ 



■q m 


P "q 

r i * 


De - i - tä-tis et in per-sö-nis pro-pri - e-tas, et in es-sen- 



ti-a ü-ni-tas, et in ma-jestä-te ad-o-re-tur se-quä-li- 



iq=n— iE 



tas. Quam laudant An-ge - li atque Archan-ge - li, Che- 

:q— »= ftF=i^ 



> — pri 

ru-bim quoque ac Se-ra-phim: qui non cessant cla-ma 





re quo - ti - di - e, u-na vo - ce di - cen-tes. 
9. In Festis B. Mariae Virg. 

On all Feasts of the B. V. M. (except the Purification, when the Pre- 
face of the Nativity is used) and during their Octaves, and on other Feasts, 
falling within these Octaves, that have no special Preface: 

Per omnia etc. Vere dignum et justum est, sequum et sanitäre, 
nos tibi semper et ubique grätias ägere, Dömine sancte, Pater omni- 
potens, seterne Dens. (See page 120.) 

-■— m— w— *— fr- 




Et te in 1 ) 


be - ä - tse Ma - ri - se semper Virgi- 

^= *fr-*-*r *=*^-=+-=*=iß i 

nis col-lau - da - re, be-ne-di-ce-re et prse - di - cä - re. 




Quae et U-ni-ge-ni-tum tu-um san-cti Spi-ri-tus obum- 

bra-ti-ö-ne con-ce-pit et virgi-ni-tä-tis glo-ri-a perma 






nente, lu-men se-ternum mundo ef-fü-dit, Je -sum Chri 



stum D6-mi-num nostrum. Per quem. etc. 

x ) On the Feast of the Annunciation, insert : in Annuntiatione, on 
that of the Visitation: in Visitatione, on the Assumption : in Assumptione, 
on the Nativity: in Nativitate, on the Presentation: in Presentation, 
on the Immaculate Conception : in Conceptione Immaculata, on the Feast 
ad Nives, of her name, and de Mercede: in Festivitate: on the Seven 
Dolours: in Transfixione, on the Feast of Mount Carmel: in Commemo- 
ratione, and on Rosary Sunday: in Solemnitate. 


10. De Apostolis. 

On Feasts of Apostles and Evangelists (except the Feast of St. John T 
Evang.) and during their Octaves, and on Feasts within these Octaves not 
having a proper Preface: 

Per omnia etc. (See page 120.) 






Ve-re dignum et ju-stum est, sequum et sa-lu-tä-re: 


■m — m—t- 



Te Dömi-ne suppli-ci-ter ex-o - ra-re, ut gre-gem tu - um 







pastor se-terne non de-se-ras: sed per be-a-tos A-po- 

^r: B=W ^ _ IL ^_M-^ =W=W=J-w=a _p^ H .-i.=i>p ¥ r^f 

sto-los tu- os, conti-nu-a pro-te-cti-6 - ne cu-stö-di - as. 


- ^*==*^=*=B=*=p =* i 


Ut i-is-dem re-ctö-ri-bus gu-ber-ne-tur, quos 6-pe-ris 




tu-i vi-cä-ri-os e- i-dem con-tu- li-sti prse-es-se 


pa-stö-res. Et ideo etc. 

11. Prsefatio communis. 

On all Feasts and during their Octaves, and on all Semidoubles having 
no special Preface. 

Per omnia etc. (See page 120.) 





Ve-re dignum et ju-stum est, sequum et sa-lu-tä-re: 

ff — b— n — «—a—*— w — w — nj — w 




nos ti - bi semper, et u - bi-que gra-ti - as ä - ge - re, 






Dö-mi-ne sancte, Pa-ter omni-po-tens, se-teme De -us: 

$=n — i/ei=M 



Per Chri-stum Do - mi-num nostrum. Per quem etc. 

CHAPTER 27 th . 

The Ferial form of the Preface differs from the 
Festive form only in a more frequent syllabic recitation 
of the Intervals. Two examples will be enough. 

1. De Nativitate Domini. 

For all Votive Masses of the most Holy Sacrament and of the Sacred 
Name; also prescribed by the Sacred Congregation since 1868, for Votive 
Masses on Thursdays throughout the year. 

a c d e 



-*— «- 




: 1 : 

: 1 : 

Per ö-mni-a sse-cu-la sse-cu-lo-rum. 1$. Amen. y.Dömi-nus 

f e de de 

g=iWg=Pg=§^&=:W g_J|=W=<=:!]^^^=J!SJ^^E 

vo-bis-cum. I£. Et cum spi-ri-tu tu- o. f. Sursum cor-da. 

fee dc fed 




I — W~~W: 


3C I 

3$. Ha-be-mus ad Do - mi-num. f. Grä - ti - as 

g= Jf 





Do -mi -no De - o nostro. 1$. Dignum et ju-stum est. 


Ve-re dignum et ju-stum est, sequum et sa-lu-tä-re, 

nos ti-bi semper, et u-bi-que gra-ti-as a-ge-re, 







Do-mi-ne sancte, Pa-ter omni-po-tens, se-terne De-us. 






Qui-a per incar-na-ti Ver-bi my-ste-n-um, no- va mentis 

nostrae 6-cu-lis lux tu-se cla-ri-ta-tis in-fiil-sit: ut dum 


X— *: 


vi-si-bi-li-ter De- um cog-noscimus, per hunc in in-vi-si- 

P=8=w^c ] -w= w — u 



-W— * 

bi-li-um a-mo-rem ra-pi-a-mur. Et id-e-0 cum An- 


-*— ■- 




■#— *- 


ge-lis et Archän-ge-lis, cum Thro-nis et Do-mi-na-ti-6- 





-*— *- 



ni - bus, cumque omni mi - li - ti - a cce-lestis ex-er - ci-tus, 





p pr=ipöq=3p*=q 

hymnum glö-ri - se tu-ae ca-nimus, si-ne fi-ne di-centes. 

The second Preface, In Quadragesima is used on all 
Ferial Days from Ash-Wednesday until the Saturday be- 
fore Passion Sunday, inclusive. 

The third Preface, De Cruce is used from Passion 
Sunday until Holy Thursday (exclusive), also at Private 
Votive Masses of the Passion. 

The fourth Preface, tempore paschali on Ferial Days 
and Feasts ritu simplici from Low Sunday until Ascension. 

The fifth Preface, de Ss. Trinitate at private Votive 
Masses of the Holy Trinity. 

The sixth, de Spiritu sancto at Votive Masses of the 
Holy Ghost. 

The seventh, de Beata Maria at Votive Masses of 

the Blessed Virgin. 


Magister Choralis. 


The eighth, de Apostolis at Votive Masses of the 

The ninth, Prcefatio communis, on simple Feasts and 
Ferial Days having no proper Preface and at Masses for 
the Dead. 

Per omnia ssecula etc. (See page 128.) 






Ve-re dignum et justum est, sequum et sa- hi- tä-re, 


-■— m- *- ■- 




nos ti-bi semper et u-bique gra-ti-as ä-ge-re, Dömine 


-*— *- 

sancte, Pa-ter omni-po-tens, 8e-terne De-us, per Christum 






Dömi-num nostrum. Per quern ma-jesta-tem tu-am laudant 






Ange-li, ad-ö-rantDomina-ti-ö-nes, tremunt Po-testä-tes. 




Coe - li co3 - lo - rümque Vir- tu - tes , ac be - ä - ta Se - ra 

$zz^= ^=^ =N=W=N=W= >c=Hiz^— 



phim, so-ci-a exsul-ta-ti - 6-ne conce-le-brant. Cum quibus 



et nostras vo-ces, ut admit-ti jü-be-as, deprecämur, sup- 

g3^(=W — H— Jt 



pli - ci con-fes- si -6-ne di - cen-tes. 

The Sanctus, which is selected according to the season, 
or rank of the Festival (see p. 115, Observ. III.) imme-. 


diately follows the Preface. During the Elevation nothing 
should be sung: — "silet chorus et adorat cum aliis." 
The Organ however may play; yet in such a way as not 
to distract, but rather help the devotion of the adoring 
faithful. li Organum vero, si habetur, cum omni tunc melodia 
et gravitate pulsandum est." (Cceremoniale JEpisc. lib. II 
cap. viii. n. 70.) 

After the Elevation the Benedictus should be sung: 
— i( Cantari debet post elevationem/' (S. B. C 12. Nov. 1831.) 
This rule certainly holds for Pontifical Masses, and for 
others De Herdt says it is a praiseworthy custom; — 
"laudabilis." However if the Sanctus and Benedictus should 
both be sung before the Elevation, then it is allowed, 
after the Elevation, to sing the Tantum ergo, or other 
portion of a Hymn or Antiphon to the Blessed Sacra- 
ment; provided however the words be not altered. 1 ) 

CHAPTER 28 th . 

I. There are two intonations of the Pater noster, one 
solemn, the other ferial. 2 ) 

*) The typical edition of the Cceremoniale Episcoporum (Lib. I. 
cap. 28. par. 9) says: "In Missa solemni pulsatur [organum] alternatim 
. . . ad Sanctus, ac deinceps usque ad Pater noster; sed ad elevationem 
Ss. Sacramenti pulsatur organum graviori et dulciori sono: et post eleva- 
tionem poterit immediate motettum aliquod opportunum cantari." Still 
another Decree remains in force as given in the 2 nd book, 8 th chapter, 
paragraphs 70 & 71 : — "Chorus prosequitur cantum usque ad Benedictus 
qui venit exclusive ; quo finito, et non prius, elevatur Sacramentum. Tunc 
silet Chorus, et cum aliis adorat. Organum vero, si habetur, cum omni 
tunc melodia, et gravitate pulsandum est." "Elevato Sacramento, Chorus 
prosequitur cantum Benedictus etc." The Celebrant therefore is bound 
to wait and not commence the elevation until the Choir shall have 
concluded the Hosanna. This pause when necessary can be best made 
by prolonging the Memento for the living. 

5 ) In the Bull: "Quo primum temp." Pius V. remarks (14 th July 
1570) : "Quare abusus est, in Missa cantata legere tantum, quce juxta ritum, 
modum et normam Missalis cantari debent, uti fit, quando Epistola vel 
Prcefatio abrumpitur, cantus Pater noster omittitur vel truncatur etc." 



1. Tonus festivus. 

A C D E 


Per ömni-a ssecu-la sse-cu-16- rum. 1$. Amen. O-remus. 

C D E 

Prseceptis sa-lu-tä-ri-bus mö-ui-ti, et di-vi-na insti-tu-ti- 

Extendit manus. 

ö-ne forma -ti, au-de-mus di-ce-re. Pa-ter no-ster, qui 


es in co3-lis:Sancti-fi-ce-tur nomen tu -urn: Ad-ve-ni-at 
regnum tu-um: Fi-at vo-liintas tu-a, sic-ut in cce-lo, 

et in ter-ra. Panem nostrum quo-ti-di - ä-num da no-bis 

iz=i| = w=NEJ^t^z^9zz^? = i = !^ = ttäzq 

liö-di-e: Et dimitte no-bis de-bi-ta nostra, sic-ut et 

^— w — * — *j — w— *■ — ■ — ■— T— *- n — ^— i= ^-^~ W— ■— *— f 

nos dimit-timus de-bi-tö-ri-busnostris. Et ne nos in-du- 

!J LjL_J£=g= y-^ ^ 

cas in ten-ta - ti - 6 - nem. 1$. Sed li-be-ra nos a ma-lo. 
2. Tonus ferialis. 

To be used on Simple Feasts, Ferials, and in Masses for the Dead. 1 ) 



Per 6mni-a sse-cu-la sse-cu-16-rum. 1$. Amen. O-remus: 

*) Also in Votive Masses of a private not solemn character. 




-■— ■- 


-*— H- 

:^ W- pt 

:ft=H=H — W~r- 

Prse-ce-ptis sa-lu-tä-ri-bus mo-ni-ti, et di-vi-na in-sti 

Extendit manus. 





tu - ti - 6 - ne for-ma - ti , au- de-mus di - ce - re. Pa - ter 


jg jgjJEjEE* : 



no-ster, qui es in coe-lis: Sancti - fi-ce-tur nomen tu-um: 







Adve-ni-at regnum tu-um: Fi-at voluntas tu -a, sic-ut in 

^ £ ■ ±0 ^=111 



C03-I0 et in ter-ra. Pa-nem nostrum quo-ti - di - a-nuni 


Ti: * '.f\ -*±q*=*t 


da no-bis hö-di- e: Et dimit-te no-bis de- bi-ta nostra, 



sic-ut et nos dimit-timus de-bi-to-ri-bus nostris. Et ne nos 







in-dü-cas in tenta-ti - 6-nem. 1$. Sed li-be-ra nos a ma-lo. 

The Pater noster is immediately followed by a short 
prayer, recited submissa voce by the Celebrant, and then 

Dextera tenens particulam super Calice, sinistra Calicem, dicit: 





Per 6-mni-a sse-cu-la sse-cu-16 -rum. 1$. A-men. 

Cum ipsa particula signat ter super Calicem, dicens: 






Pax ^ D6-mi-ni sit ^ semper vo-bis Hh cum. 1$. Et cum 


spi - ri - tu tu - o. 



IL The Agnus Dei is repeated three times, con- 
cluding the third time with Dona nobis pacem, instead 
of Miserere nobis. In Gregorian Chant each repetition 
has a melody of its own, which differs according to the 
class of the Festival. (See Observation.) 

Immediately after the communion of the chalice — 
sumptio sanguinis, and before the first ablution, the Com- 
munio should be commenced by the Choir. 1 ) This is a 
short Antiphon usually taken from Holy Scripture, peculiar 
to the festival like the Introit and Offertory, and it is in- 
toned and sung according to the same rules. In Paschal 
time an Alleluia is added, which if it do not occur in the 
text, will be found at the end of the Gr aduale p. 72* (8 vo ed.) 

OBSERVATION. "Si Communio in Missa solemni 
distribuitur , Diaconus se constituit in cornu Epistolce vel 
etiam descendit in planum ad cornu Epistolce, ubi, versus 
celebrantem profunde inclinatus alta voce dicit: 

*r* '■ I **~ ~ = — =i- 

Confiteor Deo omnipo-ten-ti, beatae Marise semper 

=P 1 ■ — h— I 1 ^^ ^ u m 1 5"! — ij: 

Vir-gi-ni, beäto Michaeli Archän-ge - lo, beäto 


Joänni Bapti-stse, Sanctis Apöstolis Petro et Paulo, 

omnibus Sanctis et ti - bi, Pa - ter, qui-a peccävi ni- 

■--■ ■ ■ n ■ 



mis co-gi-ta-ti-6-ne, ver-bo et ö-pe-re: me -a cul-pa, 

x ) Quum pulsatur Organum in Missa cantata, Offertorium et Com- 
munio submissa voce ab uno recitatur in Choro, vel nihil dicitur diebus 
prcesertim ferialibus ? S. E. C. resp. 10. Jan. 1852. Did posse submissa 
voce, sed non omitti. The Cceremoniale adds in Lib. II. cap. 8. par. 78. 
"Episcopus legit Communionem, ex libro, quo?, etiam cantatur a choro post 
Agnus Dei, postquam Episcopus sumpserit Communionem, et ea cantata, etc. ,T 



me -a cul-pa, me -a mä-xi-ma cul-pa. Ideo precor beä- 

tam Mariam semper Vir- gi-nem, beätum Michaelem 

Arch-än-ge-lum, beätum Joännem Ba-pti-stam, sanctos 

Apostolos Petrum et Paulum, omnes Sanctos, et te 

pa-ter, oräre pro me ad Do- mi -num. De -urn nostrum. 1 ) 

. . . Diaconus respondet "Amen". Non impedit, quominus 
in numerosa Communionis distributions cantetur Ps. aut 
hymn, de Ss. Sacr. ad populum excitandum, movendum et 

CHAPTER 29 th . 

After the Prayer, called the Post- Communion , and 
the Dominus vobiscum immediately following, have been 
chanted by the Celebrant, the Celebrant, (in Missa can- 
tata,) or the Deacon, (in Missa solemnly) sings the Ite 
Missa est, or Benedicamus Domino, to one or other of 
the following formulas; the Choir to answer Deo gratias 
in the same notes. 2 ) 

1. From Easter Saturday to Low Sunday (exclusive). 
Mod. Till. g a g f g a a gcbag fga ag 

I-te Mis-sa est, al-le-lü-ja, al-le - lii - ja. 
Ifc. De - o grä - ti - as, „ „ „ „ 

1 ) This form of chant is also employed when the Confiteor is sung 
at Pontifical Mass, where an Indulgence is proclaimed. 

2 ) "Laudandus est mos, quo chorus eodem tono respondet Deo eratias." 
| Vid. Grad. Rom. 


2. In Festis solemnibus. 
cbgagef g gdedc Mod. XI (XIII). 


I - te e e e e Mis-sa est. 

1$. De - o o o o o grä - ti - as. 

According to the Acta Ephemerides , T. III. p. 367, 
6. Sept. 1781, the following Feasts are to be classed 
under the head of Festa solemnia: Nativitas D. K J. C, 
Epiphania, Pascha, Ascensio Dhi, Pentecoste, Solemnitas 
Corporis Christi, S. Josephi, S. Joannis Bapt., Ss. Apost. 
Petri et Pauli, Assumptio B. M. V., Omnium Sanctorum, 
F. tituli vel patrocinii. Hence it follows, that this solemn 
intonation, N° 2, (of comparatively recent adoption) is to 
be employed only on the Epiphany, the Ascension, Pen- 
tecost Sunday, Monday and Tuesday, St. Joseph, St. John 
the Baptist, Ss. Peter and Paul, All Saints, Dedication 
of the Church, as well as on all Feasts of the first class, 
in solemn Yotive Masses, and on the Feast of the Patron 
Saint (when not de Beata). Christmas Day, Corpus Christi, 
and the Assumption, have the formula de Beata, and 
Easter the form N° 1. 

On account of the number of notes in this Intonation, 
it should be sung very smoothly, not drawlingly, and 
care should be taken not to commence it too high. Suf- 
ficient attention to the rhythm, breathing marks, etc., and 
avoidance of all ostentation or affectation, will render 
this chant solemn and dignified. 

3. In Festis Duplicibus et 2 dse classis. Mod. I 

aga cbaga agfde egad egfede fed 

I - te e e Mis-sa est. 

1$. De - o o o grä - ti - as. 


This form serves for Feasts of the Apostles, 1 ) and 
Feasts which are duplex II classis, (majus et minus). 2 ) 
The several phrases should be smoothly and pleasingly 
sung, and not drawled out in separate notes, of equal 
time- value. 

4. In Missis Beatae Marise, in Oct. Corp. Chr. et Nativ. DM. 3 ) 
dfga d fdcdcd fg f ed Mod. I. 


I - te e Mis-sa est. 
1$. De - o o grä - ti - as. 

The minor third d-f should never be sung as a fourth, 
and the full tone c-d (instead of cjf-d) should be carefully 
attended to. 

5. In Dominicis infra annum, in Festis Semidnplicibus , et infra 
Octavas, quae non sunt beatse Marise. 

abbaga d fgab|?a Mod. 1. 

I - te - e Mis - sa est. 
I£. De - o-o grä - ti - as. 

6. From Septuagesima to Quinquagesima inclusive. 


Be - ue - di - ca-mus Do - - mi - no. 
1$. De - - - o - o gra - ti - as. 

') Ss. Peter and Paul is a double of the 1 st class, and has the 
solemn Ite missa est. N° 2. 

Q ) But Feasts of the B. M. V., de Ss. Nomine Jesu, and others of 
the II. classis, or lower rank, when the Preface is of the Nativity or 
de Beata, use the Ite missa est de Beata. 

3 ) From what has been already said it is clear when this form 
de Beata should be used. On the Sunday however within the Octave 
t of the Immaculate Conception N° 8 should be employed. 


7. In Festis Simplicibus et Feriis temp. Paschali. 

cd f fe d e Mod. IV. 

I - te Mis - sa est. 
1$. De - o grä - ti - as. 

8. On Advent and Lent Sundays. 

Modus VI. 


Be - ne - di - cä - mus Do - o - 
1$. De - - - o grä - a - 

mi - no. 
ti - as. 

9. On Ferial Days throughout the year. 1 ) 

Mod. IV. 

Be-ne-di-cä-mus Dö-mi-no. 1$. De - o gra-ti-as. 

10. In Feriis Advent, et Quadrag. 
a f 

Mod. IV. 




j^^ B H Ö gl-^ i ±jft 

Be-ne-di-cä-mus Dö-mi-no. I£. De - o grä - ti - as. 

11. In Missa Vigilise Nativ. Dni, in Festo Ss. Innocentium , et in 
Missis Votivis pro re gravi, quando non 2 ) dicitur Gloria in excelsis. 
Mod. I. 

Be - ne - di - cä - mus Do o o 

I£. Deo gratias (as at page 136, N° 3). 

12. In Missis Derunctorum. 3 ) 




Re -qui - e- scant in pa - ce. 1$. A-men. 

l ) E. g. the 3 Rogation days, and private Votive Masses not oc- 
curring in Lent or Advent. 

5 ) In Votive Masses with a Gloria, the intonation of the Ite Missa 
est, is regulated by the Gloria: N° 11 therefore is used only in solemn 
Votive Masses, which are celebrated in purple vestments, e. g. de 
Passione Domini, ad tollendum schisma etc. 

3 ) Etiamsi tantum pro uno celebratum fuisset, dicitur in Plurali: 


OBSERVATION. If after a solemn Eequiem Mass 
the Absolutio at the bier is given, then the Rubrics pre- 
scribe that the Libera, (for which a short form of Chant 
(modus simplex) has been approved), should be intoned 
by the Cantor es and continued by the Choir, as soon as 
the Subdeacon bearing the Cross has reached the cata- 
falque , or the Priest in cope has taken his place 
(S. R. C. Sep. 1861). 



CHAPTER 30 th . 

I. By Psalmody we understand the practice of sing- 
ing the Psalms to certain simple melodies or chants; — 
"a recitation in a musical tone of voice, with a slight 
"inflection or change of tone at certain fixed points. " *) 

All the Psalms, (with a partial exception for the 
113 tn "In exitu Israel ) are sung to eight different me- 
lodies or chants, corresponding to the first eight Gre- 
gorian modes; and these chants are called Psalm- Tones T 
Toni Psalmorum. 

Every Psalm or group of Psalms, is accompanied by 
an Antiphon, which is a verse, taken sometimes from 
the Psalm itself, sometimes from other sources, always 
suitable to the Festival, and serving as an introduction 
to the Psalm. The music of the Antiphon is more elabo- 
rate than the Psalm-Tone, being a regular melodic com- 
position with one or more notes to every syllable, and 
invariably complete, i. e. ending on the final of its mode; 

*) St. Augustine relates that in Alexandria under St. Athanasius, 
such was the simplicity of the chant employed, that "it ivas more like 
speaking than singing.' 3 


so that the Antiphon governs the Psalm; — the mode of 
the former determining the tone of the latter. 

OBSERVATION. The words antiphonal and antiphon 
require perhaps some further explanation. The custom 
of singing Psalms is most ancient in the Church. The 
Epistles of St. Paul bear witness to it. St. Ignatius 
Bishop of Antioch, the third from St. Peter, is said to 
have had a vision of angels, and hearing them sing the 
praises of God in alternate choirs, he enjoined upon the 
Church of Antioch this method of singing the Psalms. 

In St. Basil's time (A. D. 371) this custom was uni- 
versal throughout the Eastern Church, and he describes 
the people "rising before day, and going to the church, 
"where having made their confessions and prayers, they 
"proceeded to the singing of Psalms;" — and he adds, 
"that in this holy exercise, the choir being divided into 
"two parts, they mutually answered each other" (avxi- 
ipallovaiv dXlijXoig). The word antiphonal comes from 
the Greek word av%i(piovr\, compounded of aw«, opposite, 
and (pcopog, a sound; and means the reciprocal chant of 
two choirs singing alternately. In the course of time 
however the word antiphon was applied exclusively to 
that particular verse, which was to be sung before and 
after each Psalm; originating probably from the custom 
of having the Psalm sung by a select body of voices, 
whilst the multitude answered now and then with a par- 
ticular verse which served as a burden or chorus. The 
Text of the 135 th Psalm Confitemini etc. with the constantly 
recurring "quoniam in ceternum etc." will help to give an 
idea of this practice. "The Antiphons seem to be to the 
"Psalms, what the mysteries of the Rosary are to the 
" Paters and Aves, furnishing appropriate matter for 
"meditation during the religious exercises which follow 
"them. They give a distinctive colouring to the Psalms 
". . . . It is not within the province of the writer to enter 
"into a full description of the antiphonal system, with 
"its inexhaustible store of beauties, but enough has been 
"said to shew how sadly mutilated the Vespers of any 
"festival must be when the words of the antiphons are 
"suppressed, or rapidly recited on a monotone. The choral 


I "music of the Catholic Church once subjected to un- 
I "authorised curtailment, becomes unintelligible, not to say 
I "ridiculous." 1 ) 

II. The following few remarks on Psalm -Tones and 
their construction will be sufficient for the Theory. In 
the 3 d Part of this book, when we come to speak of the 
Practice of Plain- Chant, a few rules will be given for 
chanting the Psalms, which if observed in practice cannot 
fail to prove useful. 

1) The Antiphon which accompanies every Psalm, or 
group of Psalms, must, on a Double, — Fest. Dupl. — 
be sung both before and after the Psalm. 2 ) On Festivals, 
of inferior rank, Semidoubles etc. only the first words are 
sung before the Psalm, and the entire Antiphon after. 

2) Every verse of a Psalm is divided into two parts r 
the point of division being indicated by a colon: or 
asterisk * 3 ) The first member of each Psalm -Tone r 
i. e. down to the asterisk, is always the same; the second 
member has in the 1 st , 3 d , 4 th , 7 th and 8 th Tones various 
endings, which are called the Finalis, Terminatio or Dif- 
ferentia, and in English the "ending", or "final cadence." 

3) The Intonation of the first verse of the Psalm 
may be either solemn (on great festivals), or ferial (on 
lesser festivals or Ferias). 

4) In the solemn Intonation, only the first verse is 
sung with the little melodic phrase or inflection at the 
beginning, (called on this account the initium or inchoatio) 7 
in all the subsequent verses it is omitted. 

*) [See Introduction to "Organ accompaniments to the Antiphons 
of the Eoman Vesperal" by John Lambert. London, 1851.] 

5 ) When the Organ accompanies , a short interlude after each 
Psalm will allow some one of the choristers to read the Antiphon 
after the Psalm in a low voice, a practice permitted by the Rubric. 
Vide Ccerem. Episc. lib. II. cap. 1. n. 8. 

3 ) Even when the Psalms are only recited in Choir the asterisk 
V serves to indicate a pause. S. E. C. 9. Julii 1864. 


5) The little cadence occurring in the middle of the 
Terse before the asterisk *, is called the medium or 
media tio. 

6) In the Choral Books we find at the end of each 
antiphon, the second member or "ending" (Finalis) of the 
corresponding Psalm -Tone indicated in notes; and fre- 
quently under the notes we meet the letters E V V A E. 
These are the vowels of the closing words seculorum 
Amen, as every Psalm is regularly terminated by the 
Gloria Patri. 

In the official edition of the Roman Ritual and Officium 
Defunctorum we find the letters U E A E I (luceat 
eis) under the notes of the Finalis, as in the Service 
for the Dead instead of Gloria Patri, Bequiem ceternam 
is said, and instead of Sicut erat etc. Et lux perpetua 
luceat eis. 

7) As the mode of the Antiphon determines the tone 
of the Psalm, — the Psalm-tone in truth dovetailing with 
the music of the Antiphon, — it becomes necessary to keep 
in mind the final note of the Antiphon , and the initial 
note of the Psalm, in order that the progression may be 
natural and easy. The following Table will show the 
relative positions of these notes in each of the eight 
Tones; the first note representing the final of the Anti- 
phon, and the second note in each mode, the initial of 
the Psalm. 1 ) 

I. Tonus. II. Tonus. III. Tonus. IV. Tonus. 



D F 

V. Tonus. 

D C 
VI. Tonus. 

E G 
VII. Tonus. 

E a 
VIII. Tonus. 










*) These final and initial notes will also prove useful in the Introits; 
tout not with the Gloria Patri in the responses to the Nocturns. 


This Table serves for the Canticles, and the festive 
Psalm -tones, — Toni Psalmorum festivi. For the Toni 
Psalmorum feriales, we append another Table, which gives 
the final of the Antiphon, and the first note of the Diffe- 
rentia or ending of the Psalm-tone. 1 ) This note is also 
the Dominant or reciting note. 

I. Tonus. II. Tonus. III. Tonus, or: IV. Tonus. 

Da DF Ec Ec Ea 

V. Tonus. VI. Tonus. VII. Tonus, or: VIII. Tonus, or: 2 ) 

Fc Fa Gd Gd Gc Gc 

8) If the first half of the Psalm -verse before the 
asterisk end with a monosyllable or indeclinable Hebrew 
proper name, then in the 2 nd , 4 th , 5 th and 8 th Tones the 
last note is omitted. Such words for instance, as tu, sum, 
Israel, usquequo, David, Jacob, Jerusalem, Sion etc. come 
under this rule; but Juda, Judce, is an exception. This 
incomplete cadence is called intonatio in pausa correpta, 

e. g. Tonus VIII. 

a — W— ■ — *— w— ■ — a — * 


Cre-di-di propter quod lo-cü-tus sum. * 

9) Should the first words of the Antiphon be identical 
with the first words of the Psalm, the latter are not re- 

r ) In this form of arrangement the Repercussion (see page 74) is 
regularly given before the clef in the Compendium Gradualis and in 
the Compendium Antiphonarii ; the lower note marks the Final, the 
upper the Dominant. 

2 ) This distribution of the clefs is observed in the more recent 
editions of the official Choral Books for all chants, so that the F-clef 
on the second line is usually employed for the 1 st , 3 d , 4 th , 6 th and 
8 th Modes, on the third line for the 2 nd Mode, and the C-clef on the 
third line for the 5 th and 7 th Modes, unless the compass of the melody 
should require the adoption of the C-clef on the third line for the 
3 d and 8 th Modes or the C-clef on the second line for the 7 th Mode in 
order to avoid having recourse to ledger lines above the stave. 


peated on semidoubles and simples. For example in the 
Vespers for Sunday, the Antiphon begins with the open- 
ing words of the 109 th Psalm Dixit Dominus; the Psalm 
consequently will commence with Domino meo. Thus: 

Antiph. Ps. 

Di-xit Do-mi-nus * Do -mi-no me - o. 

OBSERVATION. When a number of choristers, or 
a community are singing the Psalms, all should commence 
and end together, take breath in the same place, and 
sing the inflections of the mediation and ending to the 
same syllables. For this purpose some persons devised 
a method of pointing the Psalms, by the use of different 
type or accent marks or numbers. In the earliest manual 
editions of the official Choral Books this method was 
tolerated by the Sacred Congregation. But as it became 
a subject of warm controversy the same Sacred Congre- 
gation determined in 1879 not to admit these signs into 
the official books and leave the question of pointing the 
Psalms an open one. 

Ten years ago it was undoubtedly a happy thought 
to mark the Vesper Psalms with numbers, and indicate 
thereby for the eight Psalm-tones the exact syllables on 
which the middle and final cadences should begin. But 
the vast majority found the Rules and Exceptions, 
especially those affecting, the treatment of the so-called 
secondary syllables, too complicated, and scared by the 
indispensable condition of good Text- declamation went 
back to the system of getting the Psalms by heart. 

The earlier attempts to mark the change of the 
melody in each Psalm -tone by printing the syllable in 
thick type or in italics, or by dividing lines and special 
accent marks, demanded on the one part (especially for 
a complete edition of the Vesper Psalms) much space, 
and on the other hand the eye involuntarily attracted 
by the signs or types thus conspicuously printed, draws 
off the attention from the real verbal accent, and the 
Declamation no longer expresses the rules of Latin pro- I 


nunciation , but results in a false mechanical and heavy 

The Editor of this Manual in special editions of the 
PsalteriumVespertinum and of the Psalms for Matins, Lauds 
and. Vespers of the Nativity, of the Tridui Sacri, Paschatis, 
and Defunctorum sought to avoid these difficulties, and 
to help the memory by printing in full the notes of each 
mode for each Psalm, in difficult or doubtful cases mark- 
ing the syllable to be accented with the vowel printed in 
dark thick type, and distributing clearly and correctly 
the secondary syllables which he employed as rarely as 
possible, over the Psalm-melody. Special attention was 
given to the rule that the "Text is the mistress, the note 
the slave": — "andllam i. e. notam dominari tarn a jure 
quam a ratione est penitus alienum." A fuller account of 
these principles and their employment may be read in 
the Preface to the Psalterium Vespertinum. 

CHAPTER 31 st . 

I. The following Psalm-tones are used: firstly on all 
Feasts of the 1 st and 2 ud class and on Greater Doubles, 
throughout the entire Divine Office; secondly in festis 
duplicibus minoribus, Dominicis et festis semiduplicibus, 
at Matins, Lauds and Vespers only. 

The better to catch the eye and enable the reader 
to learn by heart the intonations of the Psalms, we pre- 
sent them all together in condensed form, giving only 
the melody of the Tone with the final note of the Anti- 
phon and the Dominant (the note after the asterisk *) 
indicated by the two small notes one above the other 
placed before the clef. Exercises in the Declamation of 
the Text and distribution of the syllables can be best 
practised from the small Psaltery s published or from any 
Prayer Book in which the Psalms of David are given. 

Initium*) Mediatio. 

I. Tonus. ^ E ^=w i =^ E E|iE^ l J^gE =^ :: = ^ 

Magister Choralis. 10 


Fin. 1. lj§: 
Fin. 2. ij§: 


M=*=&=*=^ : 

Fin. 3. 


Fin. 4. ite 
Fin. 5. ig: 

m — ■ W =tf: 




Initium.*) Mediatio. Finalis. 

U. Tonus. JE^E^ ^BEE gE EEff^gizj —^Z" ! 

HI. Tonus. *j£b< 

Initium.*) Mediatio. 



Fin. 1. 


Fin. 2. lj| 

Fin. 3. ig 

.Fm. 4. ig 





IY. Tonns. £ ^-J L- h » 


JFSw. i. 

Fin. 2. 


am — a — u — * 



.Fm. 5. jg 


Y. Tonus. ^S 





*) Here at the asterisk *) the Dominant of the Tone is easily 
recognised, because it is the principal note of the Tone to which most 



YI. Tonus. tjE 






YH Tonus. jjEpj: 

ipfrl !■■! »*: 

Fm. i. JE! 

m; 2. 

Fin. 3. 3E 
J??». 4. J 

^m. 5. ^E! 






¥111. Tonns. 3ES5Ü 

■ — W — - 

l^m. i. 


j?». £. 


II. For the 113 th Psalm In exitu Israel, there is a 
special chant constructed from a combination of the first 
and eighth modes, and called Tonus mixbus, (also pere- 
grinus 1 ) irregularis). This irregular tone is only used 
with this Psalm, when the Antiphon Nos qui vivimus ac- 
companies it; on other occasions, when this Antiphon 
does not occur, such as on the Sundays in Advent, the 
Epiphany, Easter, Pentecost and Trinity Sundays and 
on the Sundays during Paschal Time, this Psalm is sung 
in the Tone corresponding to the Antiphon. 

of the syllables are sung, and with this note the second and subsequent 
verses begin. 

l ) According to Gerbert the Tonus Feregrinus originated in France, 
where the Eoman singers sent there in the 9 th and 10 th centuries 
heard it and brought it with them to Eome. 



The first verse of the Tonus peregrinus and its ac- 
companying Antiphon are as follows: 

Nos qui vi-vimus. In ex-i-tu Isra-el de iE-gy-pto. 


do-mus Ja-cob de pö-pu-lo bär-ba-ro. 

Nos qui vi-vimus be-ne-di-cimus Do -mi-no. 

The 28 remaining verses are sung in the following 
simpler style. 



Facta est Judaea saiicti-fi - cä - ti - o e - jus, * 

i M-MzJM , n fe-ff 

Is-ra - el po - te-stas e - jus. 

CHAPTER 32 d . 

I. The Tonus ferialis is employed: 1 st on minor Doubles, 
in Festis clupl. minoribus (i. e. on all Feasts which are 
not of the 1 st or 2 nd class, or Greater Doubles), and on 
Sundays and semidoubles, at Prime, Terce, Sext, None 
and Compline. 2 nd in Festis simplicihus et in Feriis 
throughout the entire office, and in the Office for the. 
Dead, even on All Souls Day and whenever the Anti- 
phons are doubled. 

OBSERVATION. As the Festive and Ferial Tones 
for the Psalms differ only in the Initium and partly in 
the mediatio, whilst the endings remain the same, it will 
be only necessary here to give the first member of the 
verse. All the verses are sung alike. The Intonatio in 
pausa correpta in the prescribed Tones, will be the same 
äs in preceding Chapter; the Initium only is ferial. 


Initium. Mediatio. Initium. Mediatio. 

I Tonus. l ^Igr— ^rir ^ii^r u Tonus.^i^^^^ 

The 5 Finals see page 146. 

Initium. Mediatio. Initium. Mediatio. 

III.TonüS.ggr=^EE^gg=g IY. TOMlS.^gES^Jj 

The 4 Finals see p. 146. The 5 Finals see p. 146. 

Initium. Mediatio. Initium. Mediatio. 

Y, Tonus. j ^HJUE EEgE^ vi. Tonus, j ^W E^u EJEgj 

Initium. Mediatio. Initium. Mediatio. 

-— ^UIOP VTTT Tau no ±=Z=l"i=Zzdl!=! 

VII. Tonus, j gy— ^g^ YIII. Tonus. i$ 

The 5 Finals see §. 147. The 2 Finals see p. 147. 

II. In the Canticle of Zachary — the Beneclictus, 
and in that of the B. M. V. — the Magnificat, every verse 
should be sung in the solemn form used for the in- 
tonation, even in Ferial offices and the Office for the 
Dead: "inchoantur et decantantur usque ad ultimum 
versum solemniter, etiam in officio feriali vel Defuncto- 
rum." (Direct Chori pag. 37*.) *) 

The first verse of the Magnificat has not enough of 
syllables for the usual Psalm chants and is intoned in 
each mode as under; the second and following verses, 
and the first and all the verses of the Benedictus are 
sung according to the chants in the preceding chapter. 

Initium. Initium. 

Tonus I; ^=j^^=g=gEgE Tonus II. £$=^^^^i= 

Ma-gni - fi-cat. Ma-gni - fi-cat. 

The 5 Finals see p. 146. 

*) Where a custom (consuetudo) exists, the cantica may be sung 1 
ferial form when the office is ferial. S. R. C. 9. Maji, 1857. Act. 
'Ephem. Tom. III. p. 587. 


Initium. Initium. 

Tonus III. ;£$E^==S Tonus IY. j =^=[fc^=M=± 

Ma-gni - fi-cat. Ma-gni - fi-cat. 

The 4 Finals see p. 146. The 3 Finals see p. 146. 

Initium. Initium. 

Tonus Y. -JjjE ^±E iEffE Tonus YI. £^=i=^=w^ 

Ma-gni - fi-cat. Ma-gni -fi-cat. 

Initium. Initium. 

Tonus Yn. ^E ^t^EgEJ gp Tonus YUI. £ ^« Zj£ Z*I=ff 

Ma - gni - fi-cat. Ma-gni - fi-cat. 

The 5 Finals see p. 147. The 2 Finals see p. 147. 

CHAPTER 33 d . 

I. Every Office has seven parts or horce (canonical 
hours) which will he treated of in this and the following 
chapters. l ) 

Most Feasts have two Vespers, the first on the 
Vigil, and the second on the evening of the Feast. The 
Directory or Ordo must he consulted in order to know 
the Vespers for each Feast. If they be 1 st Vespers of 
the following day, then the Ordo says, Vesper ce de sequenti 
(Vespers of the following); if Vespers of the day itself, 
they are described: In II. Vesp. (in 2 nd Vespers); if finally 
the Vespers be divided, i. e. the first portion be given to 
the Office of the Feast being celebrated, and the second 
portion to the Feast of the following day, then the 
direction is: Vesp. a capitulo de sequenti; i. e. Vespers 
from the Little Chapter of the following: the Capitulum 
or Little Chapter being the point of the division. 

*) Whatever is common to all hours will he explained in that 
place where it is first met with and then afterwards only referred to. 


After the Priest has recited in silence the prepara- 
tory prayer, — Pater noster and Ave Maria, — he intones 
the Deus in adjutorium etc., which has a festive and 
ferial intonation. 1 ) 

a) In Festo dupl. et semidupl. ad omnes horas. 

3 ■ ■ 

q=±c«z=iq =g: 

De- us, in ad-ju - to - ri - urn me - urn in-ten-de. 


Dömiue, j ad adjuvändum me fe-sti-na. Gloria Patri, et Filio, 

et Spiritui san-cto: Sicut erat in principio, | et nunc, 

et semper, | et in ssecula saeculorum. A-men. Al-le-lu-ja. 

From Septuagesima until Easter, instead of Alleluia, 
the following is sung. 

Laus tibi Dömine, rex seternse glorise. 
b) In Festo simplici et Feriis ad Matutinum. 
Hebdomad, j EBl _ I 

Deus in adjutorium meum intende. 
Chorus. ^^S B — : zzS B — -A 

Domine ad adjuvändum me festina. Gloria Patri, 

et Filio, et Spiritui sancto : Sicut erat in principio, et nunc, 

*) On Holy Thursday and Good Friday Vespers are not sung-, 
only recited, and begin immediately as in V espers for the Dead with 
the Antiphons and Psalms. 


et semper, et in ssecula sseculörum. Amen. Al-le-lü-ja. 

Vel Laus tibi, ut supra. 

c) In Festo simplici et Feriis ad Laudes et ad reliquas horas. 

y. De - us in ad-ju -tö - ri - um me - um in-ten-de. 

Chorus as at b). 

The Vesper Service has as a rule five Antiphons 7 
each followed by a Psalm. The Ordo indicates whether 
they are to be selected from the Psalterium, the Pro- 
prium de Tempore, the Proprium de Sanctis, or from the 
Commune Sanctorum. From Septuagesima until Easter 
every Alleluia after the Antiphon must be omitted. In 
Paschal time on the other hand an Alleluia must be added 
to such Antiphons as may not have one, sung of course 
in the same mode. 

In the authentic Manual editions of the Vesp. Bom. 
and Compend. Antiphonarii the Alleluias for Paschal time 
are given in notes with the initials T. P. = Tempore Pa- 
scliali. They are also found in the Comm. Vesp. or Antipli. 
arranged in the eight modes. 

On every Feast down to a semidouble inclusive the 
Intoner intones the first Antiphon to the Celebrant. In 
Ferial Vespers and on simple Feasts the Celebrant intones 
himself without any pre-intonation. l ) 

The Antiphon being concluded, 2 ) two or more Chanters, 
according to the rank of the Festival, intone the Psalm 
according to the method indicated in chapter 30 r 


*) These Rules and Directions are taken from the Birectorium 
Chori and are good for every place where the necessary number of 
Priests, Servers and Singers are to hand. In smaller churches, the 
first of the five Antiphons, the first words of the Hymn and the Anti- 
phon to the Magnificat should be intoned by the Celebrant, the con- 
tinuation of the Antiphons, of the Hymn, the Intonation and Chanting 
of the Psalms may be left to the choir of singers. 

2 ) On a Feast which is a double, the Cceremoniale Episc. remarks 
(I. Lib., cap. 28., par. 8.): "In Vesperis solemnibus Organum pulsari 
solet in fine cujuslibet Psalmi", but in par. 6. directs the Antiphon to 
be recited by one of the choir intelligibili voce. 


The Psalms should be sung through by the Choir r 
the Canons, and all Clerics taking part in the function 
in an earnest and dignified manner (cum gravitate et 
decore), so that the words can be clearly understood. 
The Gloria Patri down to Sicut erat should be sung in 
a still more solemn rhythm, and all should reverently 
uncover and bow the head. 

After each Psalm the repetition of the Antiphon may 
be entrusted to one singer who shall recite it whilst the 
Organ plays. 

The remaining four Antiphons in Cathedral and Col- 
legiate Churches ! ) should be pre-intoned by the Cantores? 
in smaller Churches they can be sung by the Cantor and 
other singers. 

After the repetition of the 5 th Antiphon the Celebrant 
sings the Little Chapter. 2 ) 

Tonus Capituli. 

Beätus vir, qui inventus est sine macula, et qui post 
aurum non abut, nee speravit in pecünia et thesäuris. 
Quis est hie, et laudäbimus JEEEiEifc 

e - umr 


Fecit enim mirabilia in vi-ta su-a. 1$. De-o gra-ti-as. 

Should the last word be a monosyllable, as on the 
Epiphany, on the third Sunday of Advent, and Ascension ; 

x ) In Pontifical Vespers the second Antiphon is intoned to the 
assistant Deacon, the third to the Presbyter assistens, the fourth to the 
Senior Canon, the fifth to the Subdeacon. "In distributione Antiphona- 
rum et reliquorum omnium, quce cantari debent a Canonicis, semper ser- 
vandus est ordo antianitatis, non attenta majori habilitate, et experientia 
modulandi." S. R. C. 7. Sept. 1658. 

2 ) In Easter week and in the Offic. Defunct, there is neither 
-Chapter nor Hymn. 


or should it have the accentus acutus as in the Chapter 
at Prime — Begi sceculorum, then the Chapter should be 
terminated as follows: 

iq=a=fcff=g^:zsn! =«= q =&=^ 

Su-per te or-ta est. In s^e-cu-la sae-cu-lo-rum. Amen. 
The 1$. Deo gratias. remains however as above. 

The Celebrant intones the Hymn, the Choir continues 
&nd concludes the first strophe. 1 ) 

The last strophe of the Hymn often changes, ac- 
cording to season. The change is regularly notified in 
the Ordo, and is to be observed in all the Hours where 
the Hymns are in the same metre. In the Hymn Iste 
Confessor frequently we must read meruit supremos laudis 
honores instead of meruit beatas scandere sedes which is 
notified in the Ordo by the initials M. S. or mutat. 3. vers. 

Those strophes of Hymns where a liturgical action 
(such as genuflexion 2 ) is prescribed, such as at the first 
strophe of the Veni Creator and Ave maris Stella, the 
strophe Crux ave in the Vexilla Begis, and Tantum ergo 
in the Tange lingua when the Blessed Sacrament is ex- 
posed, must always, like the first and last strophes, be sung 3 ) 

*) "Chorus prosequitur in cantu piano, vel musicali, prout magis pla- 
•cuerit; dummodo verba distincte intelligantur ; cui etiam intermisceri Orga- 
num poterit: dum tarnen verba ipsa Hymni clara voce per aliquos ad id 
depulatos recitantur, vel cum organo cantentur" Cserem. Episc. Lib. II. 
«ap. I. par. 11. 

5 ) Genuflexio intelligenda est non usque ad finem prcedicti versus, sed 
de integra stropha. S. E. C. Nov. 14. 1676. 

3 ) Reguläre est, sive in Vesperis, sive in Missa, ut primus versus 
Canticorum et Hymnorum, et pariter versus Hymnorum, in quibus genu- 
flectendum est, qualis est Versiculus Te ergo qusesumus etc. et Versiculus 
Tantum ergo Sacramentum etc. quando ipsum Sacramentum est super 
altari, et similes, cantentur a choro in tono intelligibili, non autem sup- 
pleantur ab organo: sic etiam Versiculus Gloria Patri etc., etiamsi Versi- 
culus immediate prcecedens fuerit a choro pariter decantatus; idem servatur 
in ultimis versibus Hymnorum. Sed advertendum erit, ut, quandocumque 
per Organum figuratur aliquid cantari, sen responderi alternatim Versiculis 
Hymnorum, aut Canticorum, ab aliquo de choro intelligibili voce pronun- 
tietur id, quod ob sonitum organi non cantatur. Et laudabile esset, ut 
aliquis cantor conjunctim cum organo voce clara idem cantaret. (Cserem. 
Episc. Lib. I., cap. 28, par. 6.) 


and not merely recited. The strophes not sung may be 
recited whilst the Organ plays. 

The Hymn is followed by a Versicle and Response, 
to which an Alleluia is added in Paschal Time. 

Toni Versiculorum. 

1) In Festo Duplici. 

W. Constitues eos principes | super onmem terram, a - a - m l ) 
I£. Memores erunt | nöminis tui Dömine, e e. 

2) In Festo Semiduplici. 

y. Dirigätur Domine | oratio me - a a. 

I£. Sicut incensum I in conspectu tu - o o. 

y. Angeüs suis Deus mandävit de te e. 

I£. Ut custödiant te in omnibus viis tu - is i - s. 

This intonation is followed in the minor Hours on 
all Feasts (ritu solemni down to Semidoubles inclusive). 

3) In Festis simplicibus et diebus ferialibus per totum officium. 

y. Domine in coelo | misericördia tu - a. 

1$. Et Veritas tua | usque ad nu-be - s. 

4) In Matins and Lauds of the three last days of Holy Week, 
and in Vespers, Matins and Lauds of the Officium Defunctorum, the 
Versicle should be sung as follows: 


y. Avertäntur retrörsum | et e - ru - be-scant. 
1$. Qui cögitant mi -hi ma -la. 

y. A por-ta infe-ri. 

i$. Erue, Domine, ani - mas e - 6 -rum. 2 ) 

*) Should the word end with a consonant, the neuma is to be 
sung to the vowel, and the consonant not pronounced until the close. 

2 ) In the 1 st Noct. of the Offic. Defunct this response is sung in 
the plural even pro uno Defuncto. 


The Antiphon to the Magnificat should be intoned 
by the Celebrant, and continued by the Choir. Then the 
first verse of the Magnificat is intoned to one of the 
eight Tones given at pag. 149 — 150. During the singing 
of the Magnificat the thurification of the altar takes 
place 1 ) which should be terminated before the repetition 
of the Antiphon. 

Each verse of the Magnificat should be sung accord- 
ing to the solemn intonation as the first verse. 

Then follows Dominus vobiscum with the Response 
and the Prayer of the Feast. 

If in Ferial offices the so-called preces are prescribed, 
these should not be sung, but may be recited. 2 ) 

The Versicles and Responses for the Commemora- 
tions, 3 ) Anthems of the B. V. M,, at Benedictions, Pro- 
cessions and similar occasions are sung in the following 
simpler manner. 

5) Toni Versiculorum in Commemoratione etc. 

y. Ora pro nobis | sancta Dei Ge-ni-trix. 

I£. Ut digni efficiämur | promissiönibus Chri-sti. 

In the case of monosyllables or the accentus acutut 
at the end of words, such as, Amen, David, the chant 
closes thus: 

*) The Cserein. Episc. remarks Lib. IL, cap. 3, par. 13: ''Advertant 
cantores et organista, ut cantum et sonum invicem alternatim ita dime- 
tiantur, ut ante repetitionem Antiph. incensatio sit expleta. See also 
1. c. cap. 1, par. 16: "Quod si interim expleto cantieo, Episcopus inciperet 
y. Dominus vobiscum pro Oratione dicenda, debet cessare tJiurificatio : 
animadvertendum tarnen, ut cantus Magnificat ita dimetiatur, ut cum 
thurificatione simul terminetur." 2 ) S. R. C. 9. Maß 1739. 

3 ) A Commemoration of a Feast occurs when two or more Feasts 
fall on the same day. The Feast of higher rank is recited in full, 
whilst those of lower are commemorated in Lauds and Vespers , and 
if a double of second class, in Lauds only. Sometimes the Commemo- 
rations are followed by the Suffragia Sanctorum, which are found in 
the Breviary before Compline, and except on Doubles, and days infra 
Octavam when they are never used, these should be sung. 


f. Fiat misericördia tua Dömine su-per nos. 
I£. Quemädmodum sperävimus in te. 

y. Angelis suis Deus man-dä-vit de te. 

I£'. Ut custödiant te in omnibus vi - is tu - is. 

The Tone of the Commemoration prayer is the same 
as that for the principal prayer: 

After the prayer and the occurring Commemorations 
the Celebrant sings: Dominus vobiscum. Then on Sun- 
days and die solemni two or more chanters sing the 
Benedicamus after one or other of the following melodies. 
On other days it is sung a hints musicis vel ab uno. 

Toni Benedicamus pro Officio. 

1) On solemn Feasts. 

Modus XL (XIII). 

Be-ne-di-cämus Do - o - o - o-o- mi-no. 

^fc«EER^E^fii?EEB^EE^ = ^ =i= ^3E 

*I£. De - o o o o o grä-ti - as. 

2) On Festivals of the B. V. M. *) 

Modus I. 

Be - ne - di - ca-mus Do - mi - no. 

I£. De - oo grä - ti - as. 

*) Also at Friday's Vespers, when the Office of the B. V. M. 
comes on the Saturday following, also during the Octave of the Na- 
tivity and Corpus Christi and on all Feasts when the Hymn closes 
.with the words "Jesu tibi sit gloria, qui natus es de Virgine." 


3) On Feasts of Apostles and those of duplex majus, minus, or 
2 nd class. 


Modus I 


mi - no. 

Be - lie - di - cä - mus Do - o - o 

I£. De - o o o grä - ti - as. 

4) On ordinary Sundays, also in Advent and Lent, on Semidoubles 
and within Octaves not of the B. V. M. 

Modus I. 



Be - ne - di - cä-mus Do 

mi - no. 



i^ gi^gug 

grä - ti 



1$. De - o o 

5) From Easter Saturday until Friday in Easter week, inclusive. 

Modus VIII. 

Be-ne- di-cämus D6mi-no, al-le-lü-ja, al-le - lii - ja. 
T^l. De - o grä-ti-as, al-le-lü-ja, al-le - lü - ja. 

6) On Feasts of simple rite at Matins, Lauds and Vespers. 

Modus I. 




Be-ne- di- cä-mus Do 



mi - no. 


ti - as. 

1$. De 

7) In Ferial offices throughout the year at Matins, Lauds and 

Vespers. . TTT 

* Mod. IV. 


Be-ne -di- cä-mus Do -mi -no. 


1$. De - o grä - ti - as. 


8) In the Office for the Dead instead of the Benedicamus. 

^=J=*= ^i=i= ] =" =ri=i=P^=g^ 

Be -qui- e- scant in pa- ce. I£. A-men. 

These eight different methods of Intonation are ad- 
opted at Matins and Lauds as well as at Vespers. 

The following intonation for the Benedicamus is ad- 
opted at Prime, Terce, Sext, None and Compline on 
every Feast and Ferial Day throughout the year without 
distinction of rank or season. 

9) At the small Hours and at Compline. 


Be - ne - di - ca-mus Do - mi - no. 
1$. De - o grä - ti - as. 

After the Benedicamus the Celebrant recites in a 
subdued voice without any inflection; — Fidelium animce 
per misericordiam Dei requiescant in pace. I£. Amen. 1 ) 

When Vespers are not immediately followed by Com- 
pline, the Celebrant recites a Pater noster in silence, 
and then in a subdued tone of voice (mediocri voce) says 
Dominus det nobis suam pacem, to which the Choir an- 
swers in the same tone JEt vitam ceternam, Amen. Then 
according to the season of the year the Celebrant intones 
one of the four Anthems of the B. V. M. 2 ) 

1) From Advent to Candlemas inclusive. 

Al ma 

2) From Candlemas (that is to say from the -fc — jtt t j — ti~ 

end of Compline of the 2 na February, even if n* — -*4^ — ** 

Candlemas be transferred) to Holy Thursday. A - ve 

x ) "Fidelium animse, Dominus det nobis, Divinum auxilium, sub- 
missa voce sine vocis variatione canuntur." S. R. C. 9. Maji 1739. 

2 ) In the Vesp. Rom. there are two settings, solemn and simple 
of the four anthems. 


3) From Easter to Trinity exclusive. 



Re-gi-na coe - li. 

4) From Trinity to Advent. 





Sal-ve Re-gi-na. 

The Prayers annexed to the four Anthems are sung 
In ferial Tone (see page 110). After the Amen of the 
prayer the Divinum auxilium maneat semper nobiscum. 
3$. Amen, is recited on a subdued tone of voice (sub- 

missa voce). 

II. Should Compline follow Vespers immediately, th< 
Cantor after the Amen of the Fidelium, sings : 


y. Jube, domne, be-ne-di - ce - re. 
The Hebdomadarian or Celebrant answers: 




Noctem quietam, et finem perfectum | 

concedat nobis Dominus omnipo-tens. I£. Amen. 

Then in the Tone of a Lesson (see p. 167) follows, 
Fratres: Sobrii estote, with the I£. Deo gratias and the 
f. Adjutorium with 1$. Qui fecit coelum et terrain. Pater 
noster in silence and the Confiteor with the Miser eatur 
and Indulgentiam recited, not sung. 

With the exception of important alterations in Holy 
Week and in Paschal Time Compline is the same all the 
year round. The Antiphon Miserere (or Alleluia) is fol- 
lowed immediately by four Psalms to be sung in Tono 
festivo on all Feasts of the 1 st and 2 nd class and on 
duplicia majora; on lesser doubles, semidoubles, simples 
and in Ferial offices they are sung in tono feriali. These 


Psalms never change and when the Antiphon has been 
sung are followed by the Hymn Te lucis, the chants for 
which differ according to the office and are fully given 
in the Vesper ale Bomanum. 1 ) 

Then follows the Little Chapter with the 1$. Deo 
gr atlas, and the so-called responsorium breve sung to a 
peculiar chant: 

1$. br. at Compline during the year. 


— "t— ■ — >r 

1$. br. In ma-nus tu - as Do-mi-ne * Com-men-do spi- 


ri - turn me - urn. In manus. 

^- r -iH ~'~^^rT~ 1 =i=wg= ^ 

p. Eed - e - mi - sti nos Do - mi-ne De - us ve- ri - tä - tis. 

i== i ^-i- = i = ^ 

y. Glö-ri-a Pa-tri, et Fi - li-o, et Spi-ri-tu-i san-cto. 
In manus. 

For the Tone of the I£. br. during Paschal Time see 
below p. 174. 

The Canticle Nunc dimittis is sung like the Psalms 
(not like the Canticle Magnificat). 

The Preces (when they occur) are recited, not sung. 
For the Tone of the Prayer see page 107; for that of 
the Beneclicamus page 159, par. 9. 

Then the Celebrant before the Anthem of the B. V. M. 
sings (see page 159) the Benedictio or blessing: 

*) The whole office of Compline is published separately in a small 
pamphlet by Heer Pustet. In smaller churches where afternoon 
liturgical functions can only be held occasionally the service of Com- 
pline is strongly recommended. 

Magister Choralis. 11 





Benedicat et custödiat nos omnipotens et mi-se-ri-cors Do- 

mi-nus Pa-ter, et Fi-li-us, et Spi-ri-tus sanctus. 1^. Amen. 

The office is terminated after the Divinum auxilium 
with a Pater, Ave and Credo recited in silence. 

CHAPTER 34 th . 

I. All Sunday Festive and Ferial Matins begin with 
a Pater, Ave and Credo said in silence, then the verse, 
Domine labia mea dtc., chanted thus: 

f. Domine | labia mea aperies. x ) 

1$. Et os meum | annuntiäbit laudem tuam. 

The Deus in adjutorium has a festive and a ferial 
intonation. For both see page 151. 

II. Then follows the Invitatorium. This is a short 
verse adapted to the Office, and so called because it is 
a sort of invitation or encouragement to the work of 
praise which immediately follows. 2 ) It generally closes 
with the words Venite adoremus. It is divided into two 
parts by an asterisk*, and the entire verse or latter part 
is sung antiphonally i. e. alternately with every two verses 
of the 94 th Psalm, Venite exsultemus Domino. In the Office 
de Tempore it is found in the Proprium de Tempore] for 
the Feasts of Saints it is taken from the Proprium San- 
ctorum, or if there be no Proper, from the Commune 

2 ) In the Office of Holy Week and of the Epiphany the office 
begins with the Antiphons and Psalms and in the Office for the Dead 
with the Invitatorium, if three Noctnrns are to be said. 

2 ) The Invitatorium is supposed to have been introduced by Pope 
Damasus, or certainly by St. Gregory. 


Sanctorum; on the feasts of Virgins for instance, from 
the Commune Virginum, on that of an Apostle, from the 
Commune Apostolorum, (if no special one be provided in 
the Proprium de Sanctis.) 

On the Feast of the Epiphany, on the three last days 
of Holy Week, 1 ) and in ordinary Offices for the Dead 
(except all Souls Day, and all days when three Nocturns 
are to be sung), the Invitatory and 94 th Psalm are omitted. 
In Paschal Time, (from Easter Sunday till Saturday after 
Pentecost,) an Alleluia is joined on to the Invitatorium. 
The 94 th Psalm (as indeed ordinarily speaking every 
Psalm) closes with the Gloria Patri, except in the Offi- 
cium de Tempore (Sundays or Ferias) from Passion Sun- 
day to Thursday in Holy Week. In Officium Defunctorum 
the Bequiem ceternam &c. is sung instead of the Gloria 
Patri. Should the Invitatorium be taken from the 94 th 
Psalm, (as on Ferias) then the same words in the Psalm 
are not repeated. 

The ten different melodies for the Invitatory-Psalm, 
are found in the Antiphonarium and Directorium Chori; 
for the eight Tones given in full, for the 4 th Tone in 
three forms, for the 6 th Tone in two and for the other 
Tones in one form. 2 ) The Cantores z ) sing first the entire 
Invitatorium, the Choir repeats it. Then the Psalm Venite 
is sung by the Cantor es, whilst the Choir repeats after 
each division of the Psalm (two verses) the entire Invi- 
tatorium, or the latter part of it. 

III. In Officio de Dominica et die solemni the Chanters 
intone the first words of the Hymn to the officiating priest 

') The reason given for there being no Invitatory on the Epiphany, 
is, that the Office of the Epiphany is of older date than the Invita- 
tory; and as the Liturgy of Holy Week is all of a mournful character, 
the joyful summons of the Invitatory is considered out of place. 

*) The 8 th Tone is not found in the Commune Directorii, as it only 
occurs once in the year, in the 3 d Nocturne of the Feast of the Epiphany. 

3 ) Fuller information for the ceremonial in solemn Vespers, when 
the ministers in cope, as Cantores, must give* the Intonations to the 
officiating dignitary, Vicarius, Canonicus or Episcopus and to other 
dignitaries in Choir in a determined order, may be obtained from 
the several liturgical books, and in a short form from Schneider's 
Manuale Olericorum, and especially in the Cceremoniale Episcoporum. 



or Hebdomadarius , who repeats them. If the Office is 
not solemn or de Dominica, the Choir intones the Hymn. 
The Hymn is taken from the Proper of the Feast, 
or from the Psalterium dispositum per Hebdomadam, the 
Proprium de Tempore, or the Commune Sanctorum. On 
the three days preceding Easter, during the Octave fol- 
lowing, on the Feast of the Epiphany, (at Matins only) 
and in the Office for the Dead, the Hymn is omitted. 
— The last strophe of the Hymn is often varied accord- 
ing to the season. This alteration is generally noted in 
the Calendar, (and in the Direct Chori) and applies to 
all the parts of the Office. 

IV. The Hymn is immediately followed by the Noc- 
turns (horce nocturnes), three or one. All Festivals ritu 
dupl. et semidupl. (except Easter and Pentecost) and all 
Sundays have three Nocturns. Festa simplicia, Ferias and 
Vigils, and Easter and Pentecost with their Octaves have 
but one Nocturn. 

Jhe Nocturns consist of Antiphons, l ) Psalms, 2 ) a 
Ver stele (J.) and Besponse (]$.)? the Absolutio and Bene- 
dicts, the Lessons and their Besponsoria. 

In Dominica et die solemni one Chanter intones the 
first words of the first Antiphon at Matins to the Heb- 
domadarius, who repeats it. When the Office is not de 

l ) According to the rank of the Festival these should be sung- (in 
ritu dupl.), both before and after the Psalm; on Festivals of lower rank 
only a few words (as far as the asterisk) are intoned before the Psalm. 
During Paschal time each Nocturn has only one Antiphon with Alle- 
luia for aU the Psalms, except on the Ascension and Pentecost with 
their Octaves. In Offices from the Common of Saints the 1 st Antiphon 
of each Nocturn is selected. 

a ) The first Nocturn de Dominica has twelve Psalms (four for each 
Antiphon) the second and third Nocturns have three Psalms and Anti- 
phons. The Ferias have one Nocturn with twelve Psalms and six 
Antiphons; the festa dupl. and semidupl. have three Nocturns with 
each three Psalms and Antiphons; the festa simplicia and Vigils have 
the Antiphons and Psalms of the Feria occurring, that is six Antiphons 
and twelve Psalms. 


Dominica or solemn then the officiating Priest alone in- 
tones. In Festo duplici the Choir sings the remaining 
words of the Antiphon to the end. 

Two Chanters then intone the first verse of the first 
Psalm; 1 ) on Vigils, in Quarter-tense, and on the Ferias 
of Advent and Lent, only one Chanter intones the Psalm. 

When the 1 st Psalm with its Antiphon is sung through, 
then in Festis et feriis one Chanter intones the initial 
words of the other Antiphons to the Canons or Clergy 
assisting in choir according to their seniority and rank. 
The Canon or other in choir repeats the intonation. The 
other Psalms are intoned in order by the Chanters in 
the same way as the first. 

It is only when the Psalm is immediately followed 
by an Antiphon, that the following Psalm is intoned by 
the Chanters; if several Psalms follow on without an 
Antiphon, only the first is intoned by the Chanters. 

OBSERVATION. On the three last days of Holy 
Week the Gloria Patri is omitted at the close of each 
Psalm. For the last member of the last verse, a special 
ending is prescribed to be used for every Psalm without 

distinction, namely: Ep — W— w— w — W !fi_ - 

E. s. Ps. 23, V. Tone, 10. verse: 


< ^^ — E 


Quis est iste Eex glo-ri-se? * Dominus virtütum | ipse 

Zm ~H— 


est Rex glö - ri - se. 
And so in all Tones and on all final verses. 

V. In Dominica et die solemni two or more Chanters 
sing the Y er side ; in Feriis et festis non solemnibus two of 
the music-choir; on Vigils, in Quarter-tense, and on the 
Ferias of Advent and Lent, only one of the music-choir. 

*) When the Organ is played this verse is usually intoned with- 
out accompaniment. 


After the Vers, and Besp. the officiating Priest sings 



Pa-ter noster. secreto. if. Et ne nos indücas in tentati - 6-nem. 
Chorus: 1$. Sed libera nos a ma-lo. 


Hebdom. Exäudi Dömine Jesu Christe 
Ipsius pietas et miseri - 
A vinculis pecca - 

preces servörum tuö- 




rum, I et mise-re 

to - 

re no -bis, qui cum Patre et Spiritu 
a nos ädju-vet, qui cum Patre et Spiritu 
rum no-stro-rum absölvat nos omnipotens 





sancto | vivis et regnas | in ssecula ssecu-lö-rum. A-men. 
sancto | vivit et regnat | in ssecula saecu-lö-rum. 

et misericors Dominus. 

Then a minister choro assistens goes to the Lectern 

or reading desk and sings : iJE 


-w— * 



Ju-be domne be-ne-di-ce-re. 

The Hebdomadarius answers with the Benedictio. Of 
the twelve customary blessings, we give here only a few 
as the chant is alike for all. 


Deus Pa- 
Per Evange- 

ne per-petua, 
ter o-mnipotens, 
li - ca lectio 
li - ca dicta 



benedicat nos Pater se - ter-nus. 
sit nobis propitius et cle-mens. 
sit nobis salus et pro - te-ctio. 
deleantur nostra de - li-cta. 

1$. A-men. 


In ritu simplici, feriali and in Officio B. V. M. and 
in Sabbato the Absolutiones and Benedidiones are sung 
as follows: 



Precibus et meritis Beatse Mariae semper Virginis, | et 
omnium Sanctorum I per dücat nos Dominus I 



ad re-gna coe - 16 - rum. I£. A-men. 




Nos cum prole pia | benedicat Virgo Ma-ri-a. 1$. Amen. 

The Lector (minister choro assistens) sings the Lesson 
in the following manner: 

Tonus lectionis. 

De Actibus Aposto - 16-rum. Petrus autem et Joannes 

Sic dicitur Punctum. 


ascendebant in templum | ad horam orationis no -nam . . . 

Sic die. monosyllabum 

n— ■ — w- 


Intuens autem in eum Petrus cum Joanne dixit: re-spi-ce 

aut accentus acutus. Sic can. Interrogatio. l ) Sic regulariter finitur Lect. 


in nos. 

— Quid 



no -bis? 


au-tem Domi- 



— ■ — ■- 

— Ü M— 



— 1 — *- 

H — 

■ — *— J-' 

mi - se - re - re no - bis. ]$. De - o grä - ti - as. 

l ) In the ninth Lesson on Christmas Day (and in all similar in- 
stances) where on the words factum est the accentus acutus and inter- 
rogatio seem to come in collision, the interrogatio should be sung on 
est, and the accentus acutus be allowed to drop out. 


OBSERVATION. The Lessons in the Offic. Defunct. 
and on the three last days of Holy Week, have no Abso- 
lutio, Benedictio, or Tu autem JDomine at the end. The 
Reader hegins the lesson after the Pater noster (recited 
in silence); he uses the punctuation noted in the above 
example, but does not close with the fall to the fifth, or 
with a different phrase, but on the reciting note sung 
somewhat slower and more solemnly; e. g. 


Vi - si - tä - ti - o tu - a cu-sto- di- vit Spi-ri-tum me-um. 

The first Nocturn of the three last days in Holy 
Week has for Lessons the so-called Lamentations of the 
Prophet Jeremias, and they are sung to peculiarly solemn 
and affecting melodies. 1 ) We give a portion of one here 
as a specimen. The nine Lamentations are given in full 
in the official Directorium Chori and in the Officium 
majoris Hebdomadce. 

Tonus Lamentationis. 



De Lamenta-ti-6-ne Je-re-mi - se Prophe - tse. Heth. 


*) [These "touching elegies", as Card. Wiseman calls them, when 
well sung, form one of the most striking features of the solemn Office 
of Tenebrce. At Guidetti's time, as Baini tells us (Vol. II., page 103, 
Memorie Storico-Critiche) the Lamentations were not usually sung in 
Plain-Chant hut in figured chant or read; and a manuscript in the 
Vallicellian library containing the three Lamentations of the third day, 
was the only one Baini knew that could have furnished Guidetti with 
an idea of the old chant for them. Some changes were made, hut so 
judiciously, that Baini suspects Palestrina to have had a share in them. 
The figured music for the Lamentations of Carpentrasso , introduced 
in the Pontificate of Leo X. , held their ground in the Papal Chapel 
to the end of Gregory XHL's reign. But no sooner had Sixtus V. 
ascended the throne than he ordered that the second and third Lamen- 
tation on each evening should be sung in Plain-Chant; whilst the first 
might be in figured chant, but not that of Carpentrasso which he did 
not relish, and the genius of Palestrina was not slow to correspond 
with the Pontiff's wishes and produce his incomparable arrangements. 
In the preface to the Plain-Chant lamentations Guidetti says "prcesertim 
cum sanctitas vestra lamentationes , quas ego ad musicam rationem resti- 
tueram, in pontificio sacello voluerit decantari."] Tkanslatok. 



Co-gi- tä-vit Dömi-nus dissi-pä-re murum f i - li - se Si - on : 

M-w — M * "1^ W 



N— «— i— * 


te-tendit fu-ni-cu-lum su-um, et non a-vertit manum su-am 

pp ^j -B-liizM 

a per-di - ti - ö - ne : lu - xitque an-te-mu - rä - le , et mu-rus 



*tt =*=p* 

pä - ri - ter dis-si - pä - tus est. 
Every Lamentation concludes with: 


Je - rü - sa - lern, Je - rü - sa - lern, con-ver - te - re ad Dö- 




mi-num De - um tu 


VI. Every Lesson is followed by its Responsorium, *) 
lor Response, which consists of three parts. The first 
part is the Response properly so-called; the second part 
begins with a Versieh] in the third part, the second half 
of the Response is repeated. 

Should the Office have three Nocturns, then the third 
Response of the 1 st and 2 nd Noct., and the second of the 
3 d Nocturn (except in Passiontide) have a Gloria Patri T 
after the Versicle, and when this is sung, the second 
half of the Responsorium should be repeated. When the 
Office has only one Nocturn, then the Gloria Patri is 
attached to the second Response. 

x ) [The Responsoria are not to be confounded with the short Response 
in answer to the Versicle. They are of greater length both as to words 
and music. The ancient ritualists are not agreed about the reason of 
the name; some saying they were so called because one singing, the 
whole choir did answer them; while others say they had their name r 
because they answered to the lessons. Baini tells us that the Respon- 
soria were amongst those portions of the Chant that required cutting 
down because of the length of the neumce.] Translator. 


If however the Te Beum is not said, then the Gloria 
Patri is attached to the third Response of the third, or j 
only Nocturn, as the case may he. 

Any alterations in this order of the Responses in 
the Matins of Christmas, Easter, Passiontide, Holy 
Week &c. are clearly indicated in the Choral books. 

It may be added, that in Festis solemnibus et Bomi- 
nicis privilegiatis, the officiating Priest, — hebdomadarius, 
— sings the ninth Lesson. 

In Festis solemnibus et Bominicis the Chanter gives 
the Intonation of the Te Beum to the Hebdomadarius, ! 
who repeats it. If the feast be not solemn or a Sunday, \ 
then the Chanters in medio cJiori intone it themselves. 

Intonatio Hynmi Ss. Ambrosii et Augustini. Mod. III. et IV. 


Te De - um lau- da - mus. 

The extended compass of this Hymn comprises the 
eight degrees of the scale, from C to c. 

A simpler chant and one more easily learned by the 
people was approved by the S. R. C. in 1877. 

VII. The officiating Priest begins Lauds with the 
Beus in adjutorium. After the Gloria Patri with Alleluia 
or Laus tibi Bomine come the five Antiphons with Psalms, 
the Chapter, the Hymn, Versicle, and Antiphon to the 
Benedictus, each verse of which is sung solemnly as with 
the Magnificat at Vespers. Should the Preces occur they 
are recited, not sung. After the Bominus vobiscum and 
Prayer for the Day, the Commemorations come and the 

What we have observed on the order of Vespers 
applies also to Lauds. 

In the Officium de Bominica, the Antiphons are found 
in the Psaltery (Psalterium dispositum per hebdomadam), 1 ) 

l ) The three first Psalms have only one Antiphon. The Sundays 
of Advent and Lent (Septuagesima, Sexag. and Quinquag. included) 
have special Antiphons and Psalms; also Low Sunday. 


on Feasts of Saints they are taken from the Propre or 
Common of Saints as noted in the Directory, on Feasts 
of our Lord from the Proprium de Tempore, and on Ferias 
from the Psaltery. 1 ) During Paschal Time an Alleluia 
is added to each Antiphon. 

The Psalms at Lauds are, for all Feasts and ordinary 
days, except from Septuagesima to Palm Sunday, and the 
Ferias and Vigils, (but not those of Easter Week,) the 
following five: 1) Ps. 92, 2) Ps. 99, 3) Pss. 62 and 66, 
joined so as to count as one, 4) Canticum trium puerorum, 
5) Pss. 148, 149, 150, all sung as one. 

CHAPTER 35 th . 

I. The Chant for the small Hours of the Office is 
found in the Compend. Antiphonarii et Brev. Bom. in 8°, 
as well as in the Folio volume of the Antiphonarium 
which bears the title Horce Diurnce, and printed in ex- 
tenso for all the Feasts of the Ecclesiastical year. In 
the Compendium also are given the Little Chapter, the 
Prayers, the Antiphons occurring and various melodies 
for the Hymns. 

At Prime, after the preparatory Pater, Ave and 
Credo, said in silence, the officiating priest sings Deus 
in adjutorium as at page 151. The Hymns at Prime, 
Terce, Sext and None have (according to the season) 
different melodies, and are generally sung to the same 
melody as the Hymn at Matins or Lauds, if the latter 
be in the same metre. 

OBSERVATION. This general rule is set forth in 
the Directorium Chori, and the annexed Table may sim- 
plify its directions. 

•) The six ferias preceding Christinas, and the ferias of Holy 
Easter and Whitsun -weeks, have special offices in the Proprium de 


Use the melodie of 

on following Days and Festivals. 

In the Officium de Tempore during Advent. 

" " " " " " Lent. 

In Passion week. 

From Christmas to Epiphany. 

On Epiphany and during its Octave. 

In Paschal Time even when the Office is not 
de Tempore. 

On Ascension and during Octave and on Trans- 

On Pentecost and during its Octave. 1 ) 

On Trinity Sunday. 

On Corpus Christi and during its Octave, on al 
Feasts of the B. V. M. and whenever the last 
strophe is Jesu tibi sit gloria, Qui natus es de 
Virgine, etc. 

For Sundays after Epiphany, from the thirc 
Sunday after Pentecost and from Septuag. 
to Quinojiagesima. 

On All Saints and during its Octave. 

On Feasts of Apostles, and Evangelists as wel 
as on doubles where the Hymns are not in 
the same metre as those at the Horce, as 
e. g. S. John Baptist, Dedicatio S. Michaelis 
Angels Guardian, Dedication of a Church 
an within their Octaves, also in Communi 
plurim. Martyrum out of Paschal Time and 
when their Feasts are solemnized ritu dupl. 

Within the Octave of a Feast de Communi plurim. 
Martyrum or when the Feast is a semidouble, 
and on all Feasts de Communi unius Mart., 
Conf. Pontif. et non Pontif., Doctorum, Virg., 
non Virg. whether double or semidouble. 

The Hymnus Jam lucis at Prime, as well as the 
Hymns at Terce, Sext and None, are omitted on the 
three last days of Holy Week and in Easter week. 

Each Hour has its own Antiphon, which usually is 
selected from the Antiphons at Lauds; for Prime th< 

En clara vox. 
sol salutis. 
Vexilla Regis. 
Jesu Redemptor. 
Crudelis Herodes. 
Ad regias Agni dapes. 

Salutis humance Sator. 

Beata nobis gaudia. 
Jam sol recedit. 
Quern terra pontus. 

Special melodies. 2 ) 

Placare Christe. 
JEterna Christi munera. 

Rex gloriose Martyrum. 

1 ) The Hymn for Terce during Pentecost Octave is Veni Creak 

2 ) On Sundays through the year the Hymn for Prime differs in 
melody from those of Terce, Sext, None and Compline. 


first is taken, for Terce, the second, for Sext, the third, 
and for None the fifth. On Sundays, Ferias and Vigils 
special Antiphons are prescribed different from those at 

The Intonation of the Antiphon is given by the of- 
ficiating priest; the Psalms are intoned and continued by 
the Choir, musicorum et capellanorum. 

The Psalms at Prime vary according to the season 
or rank of the Office. On Sundays and Ferias, now one, 
now another Psalm, is added to the 53 d and the two 
sections of the 118 th , which are invariably sung. 

The officiating priest sings the Capitulum as at p. 153. 
The Besponsorium breve, or short response with the Ver- 
sieh that immediately follows, should at all the minor 
Hours be sung by two chanters of the capella musicorum-, 
on Vigils, Advent, Lent and Quarter-tense Ferias by 
one only. 

The melody of the Besponsorium breve is at all the 
minor Hours of the Ecclesiastical year usually the same, 
the difference of text sometimes making slight alterations ; 
this melody is found in extenso in the Direct, chori. 

Toni Responsorii brevis. 


I£. Chri-ste Fi - li De - i vi - vi, * Mi - se - re - re no - bis. 
The Choir repeats the entire Responsorium. 

% Qui se-des ad dex-te-ram Patris. 1 ) Chorus. Miserere nobis 

Grlö-ri-a Pa-tri, et Fi-li-o, et Spi-ri-tu-i san-cto. 

*) This Versicle often changes. On Feasts of the B. V. M. it runs, 
Qui natus es de Maria Yirgine. The changes are noted in Antiph. and 


Chorus: Christe Fili Dei vivi, miserere nobis, f. Exsurge 
Christe adjuva nos. I£. Et libera nos propter nomen tuum. 
(As at page 155.) 

In Paschal Time and on several feasts during the 
year two Alleluias are added, and then the chant runs 
as follows: 





ty. Chri-ste Fi - li De - i vi -vi, mi -se- re -re no -bis. 

Al-le-lü-ja, al-le-lii-ja. Chorus repetit Bespons. 





y. Qui sur-re - xi-sti a mor-tu - is. Choir: Allelüja, allelüja. 




Glo-ri - a Pa- tri , et Fi - li - o , et Spi - ri- tu - i sancto. 

Chorus: Christe Fili Dei vivi, miserere nobis, * allelüja, 
allelüja. y. with Allelüja. in fest simpl. et diebus fer. p. 155. 

Should the Preces occur they are recited, not sung. 
Then follow: Dominus vobiscum, the Prayer Domine Deus 
in Tono simp, feriali (page 155); Dominus vobiscum, and 
Benedicamus. After the Deo gratias the Martyrology is 
read daily in choro. 1 ) The Lector begins at once, with- 
out asking the Blessing, to read the Martyrology for the 
following day in the Tone of a Lesson. 



ft ■- 


Ka-lendis Ja-nu-a-ri-i, lu-na pri-ma, Circumcisio Do- 


mini nostri Jesu Christi | et Octava Nativitätis e-jüs-dem. 

*) On the three last days of Holy Week the Martyrology is 


At the close each day is added: M alibi aliorum 
plurimorum Ss. Martyrum, et Confessorum atque sanctarum 


Vir-gi-num. Chorus: 3$. De - o gra-ti - as. 

On the Vigil of Christmas x ) the voice rises a fourth 
at the following words: 

In Bethlehem Judae näscitur ex Maria Virgine factus ho-mo. 

Then he closes with the following words in the Tone 
of the Passion: 

g=S= *t-»f' H l pEgjSEp 

Nativitas Domini nostri Je-su Chri-sti se-cundum carnem. 

The remainder to the end is sung in ordinary Les- 
son Tone. 

After the Marty rology the officiating priest sings 
alternately with the Choir in Yersicle tone, Pretiosa, then 
Sancta Maria in tono feriali, Deus in adjutorium in Yer- 
sicle tone, and the prayer Dirigere as at page 110. The 
Lectio brevis as at page 167. 

II. Terce, Sext and None are shorter and more re- 
gularly ordered. The Deus in adjutorium is followed by 
the Hymn, then the Antiphon is intoned, and according 
to its mode the three Psalms 2 ) are sung. After the sing- 
ing of the entire Antiphon come the Little Chapter, the 
Besp. breve, Prayer (always in tono feriali) , and Benedi- 
camus with Fidelium animce on one note. 

1 ) For the special rite on this day see the Martyrology itself. 

2 ) Each of these three Hours is made up of three sections of the 
118 th Psalm. 



CHAPTER 36 th . 

I. On all Sundays throughout the year Holy Water 
Is sprinkled on the altar, choir and congregation, before 
the principal Mass. The Celebrant intones : l ) 

Infra Tempus Paschale. 

From Easter until Trinity Sunday exclusive. 
ga afag gag g 


Vi - di a - quam. 

The Choir follows after with: Egredientem (Grad. 
Bom. or Ord. Missce p. 2*) down to the Psalm, the first 
half verse of which as well as the Gloria Patri is sung 
by the Cantor es, the rest by the Choir. Then follow: 

y. Ostende nobis Dne misericordiam tu-am. (T.p. Alle-lü-ja.) 

1$. Et salutäre tuum da no-bis. (T.p. Alle-lü-ja.) 

y. Dömine exaudi oratiönem me -am. 

1$. Et clamor meus ad te ve-niat. 

f. Dominus vobiscum. 

3$. Et cum spiritu tuo. Oratio in tono fer. p. 110. 

Extra Tempus Paschale. 

ga cba be d 


A-sper - ges me. 

*) Sacerdos, inclinatione ant genuflexione facta, flectit utroque gem 
super infimum gradum altaris, accipit aspersorium, et incipiens cantare 
Antiphonam Asperges vel Vidi aquam, cantando ter aspergit altare etc. 
These intonations with Versicles and Prayers can be had printed on 
separate sheets and mounted on stiff card board for use of Celebrant 
and Choir. 


The Choir continues with: JDomine hyssopo, as in 
page 1* of the Grad. Bom. or Ordinarium Missce. 

On Passion and Palm- Sundays the Gloria Patri is 
omitted, and the Antiphon repeated immediately after 
the J. Miserere. Versicle (without Alleluia) etc. and 
Prayer as with Vidi aquam. 

II. In the Books of the Liturgy there are but three 
' Litanies authorised; the Litany of the Samts, the so- 
called Litany of Loreto, and the Litany of the Holy 
Name of Jesus. On the Feast of St. Mark, and on the 
Bogation Days, (the three days immediately preceding 
Ascension Thursday) the Litany of the Saints should be 
sung as in the Directorium Chori, the Bituale, Proces- 
sionale Bomanum, or Cantorinus Bomanus. 1 ) On Easter 
Saturday and the Vigil of Pentecost the beginning and 
end of the Litany differ in a few notes from the chant 
prescribed for Rogation week; on these two days more- 
over several invocations are omitted and the order of 
the Virgins is changed. For sake of practice we subjoin 
the principal parts of the authorised Litanies. 

1) On Easter and Whitsun eves. 

: r=i 




-*— *■ 



Ky-ri-e e-le-i-son. Chri-ste e-le-i-son. Ky-ri-e 








e-le-i-son. Chri-ste au-di nos. Chri-ste ex-äu-di nos 





*— n— *-jp 

Pater de coelis 

De - us , Mi - se - re - re no - bis. 

*) Duo cantores litanias cantare incipiunt, ceteris singulos versus 
eadem voce respondentibus. If there be a custom of singing the Litany 
at extra liturgical devotions, (thus, Cantores: Sancta Maria, Chorus: 
Ora pro nobis, or Cantores one entire invocation with its Response, and 
the Choir the following one in like manner) this is tolerated. But the 
rule for the repetition of each Verse and Eesponse by the choir on 
these special days remains. S. R. C. 16. Sept. 1865. 

Magister Choralis. 12 




Sancta Ma - - ri - a, O-ra pro no -bis. 

Omnes sancti Do - ctö-res, O-ra-te pro no -bis. 

^EgJ== = ==E==E^E>c^:)<zWr^:w=i=t : 
Omnes Sancti et Sanctse De - i. 


Interce-di-te pro no-bis. 




Pro -pi - ti - ns e-sto, Par-ce no-bis Dö-mi-ne. 



Pro-pi -ti- us e-sto, Ex-äu-di nos D6-mi-ne. 




Ab o-mni ma-lo, Li-be-ra nos Dö-mi-ne. 

In di-e ju-di-cii, Li-be-ra nos Dö-mi-ne. 



Pec-ca- to -res, Te ro-ga-mus au-di nos. 




1 — 3. Agnus De - i, qui tol-lis pec-ca-ta mun-di, 


1. par-ce no-bis Dö-mi-ne. 2. ex-au-di nos Dö-mi-ne. 

3. mi - se - re - re no - bis. 




Chri-ste au-di nos. Chri-ste ex-äu-di nos. 

At this point the Choir begins immediately the Kyrie 
of the Mass; on Easter Saturday the Paschal Kyrie; on 
the Vigil of Pentecost Kyrie in Festis solemnibus. 

2) At the Procession on St. Mark's day, the Rogation days, and 
on other occasions. 

Before the Procession the Ritual prescribes the An- 
tiphon Exsurge Domine (II. Modus). 


Ky-ri-e e-le-i-son. Chri-ste e-le-i-son. Ky-ri-e 

e-le-i-son. Christe au-di nos. Christe ex-au-di nos. 

Pater de cmlis. Sancta Maria. Propitius esto. Peccatores. 
Agnus Dei etc. as above. Then follow Christe audi nos. 
Christe exaudi nos. Kyrie eleison. Christe eleison, as above; 
at the end however: 

Ky - ri - e e - le - i - son. 

The Psalm Deus in adjutorium is sung alternately 
in Tono feriali (Ton. VI.); the Verse and Resp. as at 
page 155. 

If the Prayers conclude with the clausula major or 
longer ending, then they are sung in Tono simpl. fer. 
page 109; if with the clausula minor or shorter ending, 
in Tono feriali, page 110. After the Dominus vobiscum 
the two Chanters sing 

$E^i z=::::: = ::z ===f =^ E"EEfc g ^- W:= ^^ 

y. Exäudiat nos omnipotens et mi-se-ri-cors Do-mi-nus. 

and the Choir answers: j — "* g= fa 

A - men. 

% JEt fidelium animce is recited in a. low voice, and 
its response Amen on the same note. 

The Procession at which the Litany of the Saints is 
sung according to this form is called in old liturgical 
language, on St. Mark's day Litanite majores, 1 ) on the 
Rogation days Litanice minores. 

*) In Processione S. Marci et in triduo Rogationum singuli Litan. 
versus integre a Cantoribus did, et a Glero repeti debent, et non sufflcit., 
ut ab Ulis inchoati ab hoc terminentur. (16. Sept. 1865.) — In Processio- 
nibus, quce obtinent in festo S. Marci, et in Pogationibus tolerari potest ut 



This same Litany as also sung at the Forty Hours 
Adoration with some trifling alterations at the Te rogamus 
section, and may be found with corresponding versicles 
and prayers in the Rituale Romanum, and in the Ap- 
pendix to the Compendium Antipk et Brev, Romani. 

2) The Litany of Loreto and of the Holy Name. 

Besides the Litanies of the Saints there are two other 
Litanies that of Loreto and of the Holy Name approved 
for private [extra liturgical] devotions. These two alone 
are to be found in the liturgical books (Rituale, Proces- 
sionale, Directorium Chori) and provided with authorised 
chants, whilst it is left free to Bishops in their respective 
Dioceses to approve and permit other Litanies. 

The special Chants for the Litany of Loreto are as 

Ky-ri-e e-le-i-son. Christe audi nos. Christe ex-au-di nos. 
Chri- ste e-le-i-son. 
Ky-ri-e e-le-i-son. 


Verse: 1 — 4. Pater de cce - lis De - us , mi - se - re - re no - bis. 

iE=E^^= JEJEfe^ 

Verse: 5 — 23. Sancta Ma-ri - a, o-ra pro no -bis. 

$— — — -B*^ — ^^ w^E^j=j-%=fti= 

Verse: 24 — 40. Speculum ju-sti-ti-se, o-ra pro no -bis. 
Verse: 41 — 50. Eegina An-ge-16-rum, o-ra pro no -bis. 

Antiphonce cantentur in Ecclesiis, quas Processio ingreditur, ritu Paschali. 
Non licet vero introgressa Processione in Ecclesiis interruptis Litaniis San- 
ctorum, invocare nomina Titularium, licet in iisdem non adsint Litaniis. 
(9. Mart. 1857.) 


A-gnus De - i qui toi -lis pec-cä-ta mun-di 





1. par-ce no -bis D6-mi-ne. 2. ex-äu-di nos Dö-mi-ne. 


:ES : 

3. mi-se-re-re no -bis. 

For a long time it was customary in many places to 
close through error [and the error is continued in most 
of our Prayer-Books] the Litany of Loreto with Kyrie 
eleison, etc.; the S. R. C. fixes the close with the third 
Agnus Dei. In Rome it is the custom for the f. Or a 
pro nobis, or Gaude et Icetare etc. to be sung by the Choir, 
not by the Priest. 

The versicle and Prayer after this Litany vary ac- 
cording to the time of year, and the different Festivals 
of the B. Y. M. The Prayer is to be sung with a fall 
of a third before the clausula minor and at the close. 

The authorised Chant for the Holy Name -Litany is 
as follows: 

Ky - ri - e e - le - i - son. Chri-ste e - le - i - son. 



Ky - ri - e e - 16 - 1 - son 



Je -su au-di nos. 
Jesu ex-äu-di nos. 




Verse: 1 — 4. Pater de ccelis De - us, mi- se - re -re no-bis. 




Yerse: 5 — 42. Jesu Fili Dei vi -vi, mi -se- re -re no-bis. 





43. Propitius e - sto : par-ce no - bis Je - su. 





44. Propitius e-sto: ex-äu-di nos Je-su. 




45 — 64. Ab omni ma - lo, li-be-ra nos Je-su. 
$E=- .j=;^=t== — _ i — * 




1 — 3. A-gnus De - i, qui tol - lis pec-ca-ta mun-di, 




1. par-ce no-bis, Je-su. 2. ex-äu-di nos, Je-su. 

3. mi-se-re-re no-bis, Je - su. Jesu, audi nos. Jesu, ex-audi nos. 

These two Invocations serve as Versicle and Response 
and they are followed immediately by the two prayers, 
Domine Jesu and Sancti nominis tui, which with one con- 
clusion are sung in Ferial Tone with the fall of a third 
before the clausula minor and at the end. 

CHAPTER 37 th . 


I. The Blessing of the Candles on February 2 nd begins 
with Dominus vobiscum. Then follow five Prayers, which 
are all sung in tono feriali. Whilst the Candles are being 
distributed the Choir sings the Antiphon Lumen ad reve- 
lationem with the Canticle Nunc dimittis; after each verse 
the Antiphon Lumen is repeated. 

Before the Procession JExsurge Domine is sung, 
(Grad. Bom. p. 258). The Priest then sings the Prayer 
JExaudi nos, (if after Septuagesima with a previous Fle- 
ctamus genua etc.) in tono feriali, and the Deacon turn- 
ing to the people sings, in versicle-tone: 


Chor : 

f. Pro-ce-dämus in pa-ce. I£. In nömi-ne Christi. Amen. 

During the Procession the Choir sings the Antiphon: 
Adorna thalamum or Responsum accepit] when re-entering 
the Church, Obtulerunt pro eo. 1 ) 

II. On Ash -Wednesday before the blessing of the 
ashes the Choir sings the Antiphon: Exaudi nos, with 
the Psalm -verse Salvum me fac, Gloria Patri etc. and 
then repeats the Antiphon. 

The four Prayers which follow are sung in tonoferiali. 
Whilst the ashes are being distributed, the Choir sings 
the Antiphon: Immutemur habitu, or Inter vestibulum, 
and at the close: Emendemus in melius with the y. Adjuva 
nos and Gloria Patri. The Prayer after the distribution 
is sung in Tono feriali. 

III. After the Asperges 2 ) on Palm-Sunday the Bless- 
ing of the Palms commences with the Antiphon Hosanna 
filio David. The Prayer, Deus quern diligere is sung by 
the Priest, in tono simplici feriali. Then comes the Epistle. 
As a Gradual, the Choir sings Collegerunt Pontifices or 
In monte Oliveti, and then the Deacon follows with the 
Gospel more consueto. The Prayer Auge fidem in tono 
simpl. fer. The Preface in tono feriali. The Choir sings 
Sanctus and Benedictus to a chant identical with that of 
the Missa pro Defunctis. Of the six Prayers which now 
follow, the fourth: Deus qui per Olivce ramum is sung in 
tono feriali, the others in tono simpl. fer. During the 
Distribution of Palms the Choir sings: Pueri Hebrceorum, 
then the Celebrant the Prayer Omnipotens, in tono feriali. 

1 ) These Chants are to be found in the Graduate, Processionale 
and Rituale Rom. as well as in the Comp. Grad, and Cantorinus Rom. 

2 ) The Gloria Patri at the Asperges is omitted. 


When the Procession is about to move the Deacon 
sings: Procedamus in pace. The Choir during the pro- 
cession sings one or other of the Antiphons: Cum appro- 
pinquaret, Cum audisset populus, Ante sex dies, Occurrunt 
turbce, Cum angelis, Turba multa. On the return of the 
Procession, two or four chanters enter the Church and 
sing the first two verses of the Hymn: Gloria laus. The 
Celebrant and Procession who remain outside, repeat the 
same two verses. The Chanters then sing the five fol- 
lowing strophes, 1 ) the procession answering after each 
strophe with the words Gloria laus, as follows: 

Glö-ri-a, laus, et ho-nor ti-bi sit, Kex Cliri-ste, Kedemptor: 


: F*-i- 

cu - i pu - e - ri - le de-cus prompsit Ho-san - na pi - urn. 

When the Subdeacon knocks at the door with the 
foot of the Cross, the door is opened and the Procession 
enters the Church, singing Ingrediente Domino. 

IV. At the Blessing of the Fire on Easter Saturday, 
the five grains of incense to be fixed in the Paschal Candle 
are also blessed. The Deacon who is charged with the 
Benedictio Cerei Paschalis, enters the Church with the 
Procession, bearing the triple candle, and sings three 
times during the procession, each time a tone higher 
than the preceding: 



Lu-men Chri-sti. Chorus. De - o gra - ti - as. 

The Chant for the Blessing of the Paschal Candle, 

called the Prceconium Paschale or Exsultet, has a great 

similarity with the Preface and perhaps surpasses it in 

beauty and variety. We give the beginning and ending. 

') Omnes, vel partim, prout videbitur. 


br-4 .'*: " ' * eI 

-*— *- 

*| =W==i=>3=i: 

Exsül-tet jam Ange-li-ca tur-ba cce-lö-rum: ex-sül-tent 
di-vi-na my-ste-ri-a: et pro tanti Re-gis vi-cto-ri-a 


tu-ba in-so-net sa-lu-ta - ris. Gäu-de-at et tel-lus tantis 

ir-ra-di-ä-ta M-gö-ri-bus: et ae-terni Re-gis splendö-re 

il-lustra-ta, to-ti-us or-bis se sen-ti-at a-mi-sis-se 




^ =g=±=q =w=--g=q= 

-B— «- 


ca-li - gi-nem. Lse-te-tur et ma-ter Ec-cle-si-a, tanti 



lümi-nis ad-ornä-ta ful-gö-ri-bus et ma-gnis po-pu-16-rum 


vo-ci-bus hsec an-la re-siil-tet Qua-prö-pter a-stan- 



-*— *- 




tes vos, fratres ca-ris-si-mi, ad tarn mir am hu-jus sancti 

lümi-nis cla-ri-tä-tem, u-na mecum, quse-so, De-i omni- 



l 1="=s=*= i =riS=r 


po-ten-tis mi-se-ri-cordi-am in-yo-ca - te. Ut qui me 

: fc-» W — ü — p^-a-a-^* — m—m- m-p 

-n— *- 



nonme-is me-ri-tis infra Le-vi-tä-rum niime-rum di-gna- 



■!..■ . 


-« — ■-«-« 


tus est aggre-gä-re: lümi-nis su-i cla-ri- ta-tem in-fun- 



: ^^-^^"=^- s =^ 1 =i=i=* fc ri=-=^ 

dens, Ce-re - i hu-jus lau-dem imple - re per-fi - ci - at. 





Per Do-mi-num nostrum Je -sum Christum Fi-li-um 





*— 1- 

su - urn: qui cum e- o vi-vit et re-gnat in u-ni- 



— — M — * — a ~ 

-r— h 

tä - te Spi - ri - tus san-cti De - us. Per 6-mni - a sse- 




: 1 : 

cu-la S3e-cu-16 - rum. 1$. A-men. f. Do-mi-nus vo 





bis-cum. 1$. Et cum spi-ri-tu tu-o. f. Sur-sum cor-da. 





I£. Ha-be-mus ad Do-mi-num. f. Gra-ti- as a-ga-mus 






Do -mi -no De - o nostro. • 1$. Dignum et ju-stum est. 


Ve-re dignum et ju-stum est, etc. The ending runs: 

Per e-umdem Dömi-num nostrum Je-sum Christum Fi- 





li-um tu -urn: Qui te-cum vi-vit et regnat in u-ni- 

l^="— q=i=±= q= f<i=i^ 



ta-te Spi- ri- tus san-cti De -us: per 6-mni -a sse-cu-la 

"r >■■ — E^lH — a— 

sse-cu-lo-rum. R. A-men. 



OBSERVATION. The Pontißcale Bomanum pre- 
scribes a similar Chant for the publication of the Festa 
mobilia which takes place in Cathedrals after the Gospel 
on the Feast of the Epiphany. This Chant must be ad- 
apted each year to the variable text, and the publication 
itself devolves upon the junior Canon. See further Cmrem. 
Episc. Lib. IL, Cap. 15, and compare with a Decree of 
the S. R. C. 16. Jan. 1607. 

Y. In the Procession to the Baptismal Font the 
Tract Sicut cervus is sung by the Choir. The two Prayers 
before the Preface are sung in tono simpl. fer. The Pre- 
face is in the same Chant as the Preface at the Mass. 
Towards the end of the Blessing, the following is sung by 
the Priest three times, the voice being raised each time: 


Descendat in hanc plenitudinem fontis, virtus Spiritus sancti. 

The last note but one (e) serves as the first note for 
the repetition. Returning from the Font to the Altar 
two Chanters intone the Litany of the Saints in the 
curtailed forme, (see Grad. Bom. p. 151) the Choir repeat- 
ing in full each invocation and response. The same takes 
place on the Vigil of Pentecost. 

CHAPTER 38 th . 



I. Mass on Holy Thursday has little special about 
it *) except in Cathedral Churches, where the Bishop con- 
secrates the Holy Oils. Twelve Priests, seven Deacons 
and seven Subdeacons assist the Bishop. The Mass pro- 
ceeds more consueto up to that part of the Canon where 

l ) The Organ is played at the Gloria, when also the bells are 
rung, after which both Organ and bells remain silent till the Gloria 
on Easter Saturday. It is not therefore correct to use the Organ at 
the Kyrie on either of those days. 


we meet the words "Per quern hcec omnia, Domine, sem- 
per bona creas," exclusive. The Bishop having assumed 
his mitre, proceeds to the table prepared, and seats him- 
self at it, facing the altar. Then the Archdeacon sings, 
<dta voce in tono lectionis: 


- le - urn in - fir-mö-rum. 

One of the Subdeacons with two acolytes retires to 
the Sacristy and brings the Oil of the Sick, which when 
consecrated is brought back in the same manner to the 
Sacristy. Then the Bishop having washed his hands, 
ascends the Altar and resumes the Mass at the words 
Per quern etc. and continues it up to the communion of 
the Calice. Having administered Holy Communion to the 
Deacon, 1 ) Subdeacon and assistant Clergy, and placed in 
a vase specially prepared, the host consecrated for the 
ceremonies of the following day, he resumes his place at 
the table, and the Archdeacon sings: 

- le - urn ad sanctum Chrisma. 
And immediately adds in the same tone 

- le - um Ca - te-chu-me - no - rum. 

The Bishop then puts incense in the thurible and 
blesses it more solito. Then the twelve priests, Deacons 
and Subdeacons with the Acolytes and other ministers 
go processionally to the Sacristy and bring, cum omni 
decore et reverentia, the Oil of Chrism and the Oil of 
Catechumens. Eeturning to the altar they proceed in the 
following order: 1 st the Thurifer, then one Subdeacon 

l ) The Deacon standing at the Epistle side sings the Confiteor, as 
at page 134. 


bearing the cross between two Acolytes with lighted can- 
dles, then two Chanters, chanting the verses Bedemptor. 

Modus II. 

Bedemptor, su-me car-men te-met con - ci-nenti-um. 

The choir repeats the same verse, and the chanters 
continue the following verses as in the Offic. maj. Hebd. r 
the choir repeating after each the verse Bedemptor as 
above. The Bishop then proceeds with the Blessing of 
the Chrism, as in the Pontif. Bom. and Offic. maj. Hebd- 
When the Blessing is completed, first the Bishop, and 
then the twelve priests in order, salute the consecrated 
Chrism saying: 

A-ve sanctum Chrisma. 

This is sung three times by each, the voice being: 
raised at every repetition. After the third salutation each 
one reverently kisses the edge of the vase containing 
the Holy Chrism, and retires to his place. 

The same ceremony is observed with the Oil of 
Catechumens, the consecration of which immediately fol- 
lows, except that instead of the word chrisma the word 
oleum is substituted: 

A-ve sanctum 6 - le - urn. 

Then the consecrated oils are brought back to the 
Sacristy with the same ceremony as before, the chanters 
continuing the verses Ut novetur sexus, and the choir 
answering each verse with Bedemptor as before. Mass 
is then brought to a conclusion and preparations are made 
for bringing the consecrated Host to the Altar or Chapel 
prepared for its reception. The Bange lingua is sung 


during the Procession, all other Chants being expressly 
forbidden. l ) 

Mass and Procession ended, Vespers are recited, not 
sung at the Altar and towards the end of same and whilst 
the 21 st Psalm Deus, Deus meus respice in me is being 
recited, the Altars are stripped of all their coverings 
and ornaments. 

In Cathedral Churches this Ceremony is followed by 
the washing of the Feet by the Bishop, introduced by 
the singing of the Gospel Ante diem Festum Pasclice, 
continued with the singing partly or entirely of nine An- 
tiphons and closed with several versicles and responses 
and a Prayer. The Chants for this Ceremony may be 
found in the Pontificate Bom., Offic. Hebd. Sanctce and 
Cantorinus Bomanus. 

II. On Good Friday a Lector reads the Prophecy 
Ucee dicit Dominus in the Tone of a Lesson, and then 
the Choir sings the Tract Domine audivi: The Celebrant 
says Or emus, Flectamus genua and the Prayer Deus, a 
quo, in tono simpl. fer. The Subdeacon sings, in Epistle 
tone, the Lesson In diebus Ulis: and as soon as the Choir 
has concluded the Tract Eripe me, the Passion according 
to St. John is sung as on Palm-Sunday. From the words 
Post hcec autem the Deacon of the Mass sings the remain- 
der in the usual Gospel tone. The Priest then sings the 
nine Prayers as at pages 108 — 112. 

The Prayers concluded, the Priest at the unveiling 
of the cross alone intones the Antiphon Ecce lignum; 
from in quo solus the ministers join him, and the choir 
answers with Venite adoremus, as follows: 

l ) In ostiolo nbi Feria V. in Coena Domini reconditur Ss. Euchar. 
Sacramentum, non licet apponi sigilluin; et eo recondite- non potest 
«antari: Sepnlto Domino. S. R. C. 7. Dec. 1844. 


Sacerdos. Sac. cum Ministris. Mod. VI. 


Ec-ce li - gnuni cm - eis , in quo sa - lus mun - di 

pe - pen - dit. I£. Ve - ni te ad-o-re - mus. 

This Antiphon is sung three times, the voice being 
raised a tone higher at each repetition. During the ado- 
ration of the Cross, the Choir sings the Beproaches (Im- 
properia) Popule meus, and then the Hymn Crux fidelis. 
During the Procession of the Blessed Sacrament from 
the altar of reposition, the Hymn Vexilla Begis prodeunt 
is sung, and may be continued during the Ceremonies up 
to the Pater noster. 

After the Orate fratres the Celebrant sings : Oremus, 
prceceptis salutaribus . . . in tono feriali He says Amen 
in a low voice, and then sings in ferial Tone without 
Oremus, Libera nos, the Choir answering Amen. 

III. The Blessing of the Paschal Candle on Easter 
Saturday is followed immediately by the 12 Prophecies, 
which are sung in the Tone of a Lesson; thus: 

Tonus Prophetiae. 

Punctum. Monosyllaba. 

In principio creävit Deus coelum et ter-ram. Dixitque 

Dixit ad 

et accentus acutus. Interrogatio. 


Deus: fi - at lux. Quid vis, fi - li? Eequievit 

eum: Abraham, A-bra-ham. 

Sic finitur Prophetia. 

die septimo ab universo opere, quod pa-tra-rat. 


Each Prophecy 1 ) is followed by Oremus, Flectamus 
genua etc., and the Prayer sung in tono simplferiali. 

After the 4 th , 8 th and 12 th Prophecies the Choir sings 
a Tract. 2 ) 

After the blessing of the Font and the Litany of the 
Saints (see page 177) Mass begins with Kyrie eleison sung 
after formula first in the Ordinarium Missce. The Gloria, 
at which the Organ is played, and the Prayer are to be 
sung in Tono festivo. 

After the Epistle the Celebrant sings: 

Äl-le lü - ja. 

This he sings three times, commencing a tone higher 
each time, and the Choir repeats it after him, each time 
in the same tone. 

After the third repetition of the Alleluja, the Choir 
continues with Confitemini and the Tract Laudate Domi- 
num. After the Gospel and Dominus vobiscum the Organ 
can play on up to the Preface as there is no Offertory. 
After the Communion of the Priest, Vespers, which on 
this day are united to the Mass, are commenced. The 
Choir intones the Antiphon Alleluja and the Psalm Lau- 
date Dominum, then repeats the Antiphon. There is no 
Little Chapter, Hymn, or Yersicle, but the Celebrant 
then intones the Antiphon of the Magnificat, as follows: 

:^ — "— w ^ =i==tfPWf=W=>i--3feE 

Ve-spe-re au-tem Sab - ba - ti. 

') After Prophecy 12 th the Flectamus etc. is omitted. 

2 ) The six Prophecies with Prayers on Pentecost Saturday, but 
in the sequence of 3 d , 4 th , 11 th , 8 th , 6 th and 7 th of Easter Saturday, are 
to he sung in the same manner; the choir singing after the 2 nd (4 th ) 
Prophecy the Tract Gantemus, after the 4 th (8 th ) Vinea facta est and 
after the 3 d (11 th ) Attende caelum; aU found in the Appendix to the 
latest edition of the Officium Hebdomadce Sanctce. 


The Choir begins at quce lucescit . . . and sings the 
Magnificat 8 th Tone, 1 st ending. As soon as the Antiphon 
is repeated, the Celebrant sings Dominus voMscum, Ore- 
mus etc. in tono festivo, Dominus vobiscum, and then the 
Deacon Ite missa est, Alleluja, Alleluja (p. 135). 

CHAPTER 39 th . 

I. The Procession of Corpus Christi is carried out 
in various ways in different countries and Dioceses. As 
this Manual only deals with what is decreed for the Roman 
Liturgy, it will not trouble itself with the peculiarities 
or abuses of localities. 1 ) 

The Bituale Bomanum prescribes the following Hymns 
for this Procession, which may be intoned by the Priest 
when he comes to the foot of the Altar and kneels coram 
Sanctissimo. The melodies complete are in the Bituale 
and Processionale Bomanum. 

l ) It will be sufficient to give in the following paragraphs the 
principal Decrees of the S. R, C. against prevalent abuses: 

1) Concentui musico (vulgo la Ban da) dum sacris Processionibus 
intervenit, assignetur locus ab Episcopo, verum ante utrumque Clerum. 
S. R. C. 23. Sept. 1837, 7. Bee. 1844. 

2) Cantores in Processionibus Ss. Corporis Christi, aliisque solemnibus 
cotta induti incedere debent, et servandum Ccerem. Episc. in Cap. II. libri I. 
S. R. C. 8. Oct. 1650. 

3) In actu expositionis Ss. Sacramenti debetne cani aliquid a Choro, 
seit Celebrante? Resp. Cantus in actu expositionis permitti tantum potest 
judicio Episcopi. Deer. cit. ad 14. 

4) In benedicendo populum cum Ss. Sacramento Celebrans 
nihil dicere, Cantores et Musici nihil quoque canere interim 
debent ad prcescriptum Rit. Rom. et Caßrem. Episc, non obstante 
quacumque contraria consuetudine. Die 12. Jun. 1627,9. Dec. 1634, 
11. Maji 1641, 3. Aug. 1839. Et idem aliis Decretis declaratur. 

5) An in benedictione populo impertienda cum Ss. Sacramento permitti 
possit cantus alicujus Versiculi vernacula lingua concepti, vel ante, vel 
post ipsam benedictionem? Resp. Permitti posse post benedictionem. 
S. R. C. die 3. Aug. 1839 ad 2. 

Magister Choralis. 13 


1) Pange lingua glo-ri - 6 - si. 







2) Sa-cris so - le-mni-is jun-cta sint gäu-di - a. 





3) Ver-bum su - per-num prod-i - ens. 

4) Sa - lu - tis liu-ma-nae sa-tor. 







5) iE-ter - ne Rex al- tis -si -me. 

[I a . The Devotion known as the "Forty Hours Ado- 
ration" 1 ) extends over three days. On the First Day, 
there is the Mass of Exposition. After Mass a Procession 
is formed, during which the Hymn Pange lingua (intoned 
as above) is sung alternately by the Choir, and by those 
taking part in the Procession. When the Procession is 
over and the Blessed Sacrament placed on the throne 
prepared for it, the Litany of the Saints, as on St. Mark's 
day, with a few changes (to be found in the Comp. Antipli. 
p. 40*), is chanted, with the Prayers &c; concluding with 
JExaudiat nos Sc. and Fidelium animce dc. On the Second 
Day there is a solemn Votive Mass pro Pace at a side 
altar, but without Gloria or Credo; and on the Third Day 
the Solemn Mass of Reposition is celebrated at the prin- 
cipal altar coram SSmo. On the Third Day the Litanies 
are sung before the Procession, but only up to the verse 
Domine exaudi etc. inclusive] then the Procession takes 
place, and after the Procession, (the concluding verses 
of the Hymn Tantum ergo and Genitori being sung at 


J ) [For the full ceremonial of the "Forty Hours Adoration" see 
Manuale Sac. Ccerem. by V. E. Mge. Forde V. G. Duffy, Wellington Quay J 


the Altar, and the chanters at the end of the Hymn 
adding Partem de ccelo etc.) the Celebrant sings the 
Prayers as on the day of Exposition, all concluding with 
Benediction of the Most Holy Sacrament.] 

II. On extraordinary occasions, e. g. the first Mass 
of a new Priest it is customary in some places to invoke 
the Holy Spirit before the Mass, for which the following 
Antiphon may be employed: 

Modus VIII. 


Ye-ni sancte Spi - ri-tus. x ) 

Usually however it is the Hymn 2 ) Vent Creator with 
the J., I£. and Prayer Deus, qui corda fidelium etc. 


Ye-ni, Cre - a- tor Spi-ri-tus. 

y. Emitte Spiritum tuum et crea-bün-tur. 
1$. Et renoväbis fäciem ter-rse. 

III. Benedictio Pontificalis. 

The Pontifical Blessing is given by a Bishop in two 
forms; one, when a sermon is preached within the Mass 
and an Indulgence published. In this case the Preacher 
having concluded his sermon, remains in the pulpit, and 
the Deacon going to the foot of the Bishop's throne sings 
the Confiteor as at page 134, genuflecting at the words 
Tibi Pater and Te Pater. 

After the Confiteor, the Preacher publishes the In- 
dulgence in the form prescribed in the Cceremoniale Episc. 

1 ) The complete chant wUl be found in the Processionale Romannm, 
Compend. Antiph. and Cantus diversi. 

2 ) Outside of Paschal time the last strophe of this Hymn runs thus: 

Deo Patri sit gloria, \ Ejusque soli Filio, 

Cum Spiritu Paraclito, \ Nunc et per omne sceculum. 



cap. XX V. Then the Bishop sings in tono simpl. fer. 
the words : Precibus et mentis JBeatce Marice semper Vir- 
ginis, Beati Michaelis Archangeli, Beati Joannis Baptistce 7 
Sanctorum Apostolormn Petri et Pauli, et omnium San- 
ctorum, miser eatur vestri omnipotens Deus, et dimissis 
peccatis vestris, per ducat vos ad vitam ceternam. ^jiElESEEF 

To which the Choir answers on one note Amen. 

Then the Bishop continues, u Indulgentiam, absolutio- 
nem et remissionem peccatorum vestrorum, tribuat vobis 
omnipotens, et misericors Dominus." ElElElEffi 

Choir answers: Amen. 

Then assuming the mitre, the Bishop blesses the 
people more consueto, saying: — "M benedictio Dei 
omnipotentis Pa ^ tris, et Fi ^ Hi, et Spiritus ^* Sancti 
descendat super vos, et maneat semper J' EiESElElE 

Choir answers: Amen. 

The second form is when celebrating or presiding at 
Solemn Mass the Bishop gives the Blessing at the end 
of Mass, thus: 

y. Sit nomen Domini bene - di-ctum. 
I£. Ex hoc nunc, et usque in sge-culum. 

y. Adjutörium nostrum in nomine Do-mini. 
I£. Qui fecit coelum et ter-ram. 


Benedicat vos o-mni-po-tens De- us, Pa-ter, et Fi- 

li - us, et Spi - ri - tus sanctus. *) I£. A-men. 

l ) A Benedictio Tempestatis, sometimes even with the B. Sacrament, 
is expressly forbidden. This form can be used however by whomso- 


IV. On Solemn occasions of Thanksgiving the Hymn 
Te Deum is sung. 

Te De - um lau - da - nius. 

Should the Te Deum be sung at the close of a solemn 
Procession, then the Ritual prescribes five special ver- 
sicles with Domine exaudi and Dominus vobiscum] in 
other cases the two following are used: 

f. Benedicämus Patrem et Filium cum sancto Spi-ri-tu. 
I£. Laudemus et superexaltemus eum in sse-cu-la. 

y. Benedictus es Dömine in firmamento coe-li. 

1$. Et laudäbilis, et gloriösus, et superexaltätus in sse-cu-la. 
y. Domine exäudi oratiönem me- am. 

1$. Et clamor meus ad te ve-ni-at. 

V. The Roman Ritual contains under the heading 
JExsequiarum Ordo all the Chants prescribed at the inter- 
ments of Adults and Children aud for the Officium De- 
functorum. As the Exsequiale Romanum published sepa- 
rately and with the sanction and revision of the S. R. C. 
gives in full all the Chants and Intonations to be used 
in the Office and Mass for the Dead, we give here only 
what appartains to the Celebrant or Priest presiding. 

Parochus. Cantores. 

Ant Si i-ni-qui-ta-tes. Ps. 129. De profündis clamavi 


j^^^^^g^^^^g !^^* 

ad te Dömi-ne, * Dömine exäudi vo-cem me -am. 

■ever may have the privilege from the Pope or the Bishop of impart- 
ing the Blessing in solemn form, but in this case he must observe 
the directions of the Rituale Romanum (Tit. VIII. Cap. 32. Ed. typ.) 


Si i-niqui-ta-tes observäveris Dömine, Dömine, quis sustinebit ? 

Parochus. Cantores. 

Ant. Exsul-ta-bunt Domi-no. Ps. 50. Mi-se-re-re me-i, De- us, 


secundum magnam miseri-cör-di- am tu - am. 

The Chanters intone the Besp. Subvenite, the Clergy 
(Choir) answers. The Prayers which conclude with Per 
Christum Dominum nostrum, or Qui vivis et regnas in 
scecula sceculorum, should be sung in Tono feriali p. 108, 
the others in simpl. fer. p. 109. After the Libera me? 
Domine, the Priest sings: 

Pa - ter no-ster. secreto. 
and after the Incensation and Aspersion: 

c a 

y. Et ne nos inducas in tentatio-nem. 

c a. 

I£. Sed libera nos a ma-lo. 

c a c a 

y. A porta in-feri. 1$. Erue, Domine, dnimam e-jus. 

c a c c 

y. Bequiescat in pa-ce. 1$. Amen. 

c a 

y. Domine exdudi orationem me-am. 

c a 

1$. Et clamor metis ad te ve-niat. 
y. Dominus vobiscum. etc. 
After the Blessing of the grave the Priest intones: 

Cantores. E " £° SUm - 

Cant. Be-ne - di-ctus Dö-minus De - us Is-ra-el; * 

2. Et e - re - xit cornu sa - lu - tis no-bis * 


1. quia visitavit, et fecit redemptiönem pie -bis su - se. II 

2. in domo David püe-ri su - i. 

In Exsequiis parvulorum, lie sings: 


Sit nomen Dömi-ni. Ps. 112. Laudäte, püeri, Dominum: 


laudäte no-men Dö-mi-ni. II 

OBSERVATION. For the reception of the Bishop 
when coming to hold a Visitation or Confirmation we 
must refer to the Processionals Bomanum. For Ordina- 
tions, Consecrations of Churches or Altars, handy extracts 
from the Pontificate Bomanum are published and the 
Cantorinus Bomanus also serves. 



CHAPTER 40 th . 


For centuries past the Organ has become so domesti- 
cated in the Church that it has come to be regarded as 
par excellence the musical instrument of the Church. 1 ) 
Although the liturgical books never consider it so abso- 
lutely necessary that solemn functions could not be cele- 
brated without it, yet they give very explicit rules and 
directions to regulate its use in the Church, telling us 
when and how it should be played. 

l ) "Hoc solo instrumento utitur JEcclesia in diversis cantibus, et in 
prosis, in sequentiis, et in hymnis, propter abusum histrionum ejectis aliis 
communiter instrumentis" writes Mam. Zamoeensis in Gtekbekt, Script. 
Tom. II. p. 388. The Ccerem. Episc. remarks: potest in ecclesia Organum 
.... adhiberi and adds this express warning: Nee alia instrumenta 
musicalia addentur, nisi de consensu Episcopi; see Lib. I. cap. 28, Nr.l&ll. 


Further on we shall say how the Organ should be 
manipulated in Church, here we content ourselves with 
laying down some fundamental principles and rules for 
the accompaniment of Gregorian Chant, a task of such 
formidable difficulty to those who are inexperienced or 
who have not had occasion to receive special training in 
this branch of Organ playing. 

The first thing to be borne in mind is that the Gre- 
gorian Modes (scales) are essentially different from our 
modern (major and minor) scales; consequently any at- 
tempt to harmonise them according to the rules of modern 
harmony will be a disastrous failure. The Fundamental 
Eule therefore must be: "The Harmony of the Church 
Modes, should on no account alter or interfere with the 
melody; the melody must in all cases and circumstances 
predominate; and the accompaniment should be strictly 
diatonic as far as the harmonic laws of cadences permit." 
As Gregorian melody was formed and practised long be- 
fore the discovery or development of harmony, the latter 
in regard to it must be regarded as something adven- 
titious, a "necessary evil", which even under the best 
possible conditions of both Instrument and Executant, 
renders imperceptible the delicate shadings of Text, De- 
clamation and free Rhythm which constitute the inherent 
charms of the Chant. Nevertheless as the Organ proves 
so useful, and oftentimes becomes indispensable to sustain 
the voices in weak or imperfectly trained choirs, the Or- 
ganist must beware of falling into the temptation of try- 
ing to vamp up at a moment's inspiration an accom- 
paniment made up of a senseless conglomerate of major 
and minor chords devoid of all natural cohesion, and 
should study and keep steadily before him the peculiari- 
ties and characteristics of the several Church Modes. 

As answer to the question 'what notes should be 
employed in the accompaniment of Gregorian Chant so 


|as to produce a correct harmony' let the following para- 
graphs serve, although they are only the private opinions 
of the Editor. As regards the fundamental Bass and its 
harmonies these rules are founded on the established 
practice of the great Masters of the 16 th century, while 
as regards the treatment of the Gregorian melody they 
rest on the principle already enunciated, that the accom- 
paniment should never obscure it, but only serve as a 
gentle support, leaving the melody to dominate clearly 
and distinctly. 


1) The richer or more elaborate the melody placed 
over a single syllable, the simpler should be the accom- 
paniment. Let a chord be selected which will serve as 
an accompaniment to at least three notes of an ascend- 
ing or descending neuma. 

2) The final note of a Gregorian melody should re- 
gularly be accompanied by the same note in the Bass, 
so that the note of the melody be the octave, and the 
final chord contain a major third. 

3) As every note of a Gregorian melody may be 
treated either as Prime, Third or Fifth of a major or 
minor chord, so let there be drawn the Triads of the 
Final and Dominant in the first line, and those of the 
five notes 1 ) common to the authentic and plagal modes 

\ in the second line, which together with their two inver- 
sions, are quite sufficient for clothing the diatonic melody 
in appropriate harmony. 

4) Besides these triads and their inversions (the 
second inversion is used by Palestrina only in syncopated 
passages or with a retarded fourth or octave) the chords 

l ) Triads on h natural on account of the diminished fifth are^ ex- 
cluded, on the other hand the first inversion as chord of the sixth 
/(d—f—b) is very useful. 


of the sevenths of the diatonic scale other than the 
dominant seventh may also he used. 

The chord of the Dominant Seventh is, however, both 
in its original form and in its inversions, excluded. Yet, 
by way of exception, a seventh is permitted after the 
triad in cadences or gradually descending phrases. 


-s — 







5) As penultimate chord in most cases the chord of 
the Dominant (modern sense) can be used, thus on c for 
the V. and VI. Tones, on d for the VII. and VIII. Tones, 
and also on a for the I. and II. Tones, if the penultimate 
note of the melody be not c. For the III. and IV. Tones 
we must use the so-called Phrygian cadence. 1 ) 

6) Dispersed harmony is as a rule to be recom- 
mended; the four parts should be so arranged as that 
eventually they could be sung by Soprano, Alto, Tenor 
and Bass. 

7) For writing in white or open notes let ^ = o, 
N =■ ö'r, and tf = j. The notes of the Bass and middle 
parts may be distributed by points and ties in such a 
way as to correspond to the value of the Gregorian notes 
they accompany. 

8) When the singers breathe at the signs i I, or 
pause at the melodic sections or at the punctuation of 


the text, let the organist lift his hands off the manual 
and cease with the singers. He must peremptorily go 
colla voce, be intimately bound up with the expression of 
the singers, follow them slavishly in all the rhythmical 
variations of tone, declamation, etc.; and in order to do 
this he must keep the text before his eyes. 

9) It is permitted to modulate in the accompaniment, 
f that is to adopt c#, f§ and g% in an inner part, when the 

Gregorian melody closes with mi -re, la -sol or si -la. As 
fa\ can never occur in a Gregorian melody, the major 
or minor triad on si natural is excluded. In transposing 
up or down the same rules mutatis mutandis are to be 

10) The Bass as a rule should move in contrary 
motion; in an ascending melody however the motus rectus 
in thirds or tenths may be used. If many words are 
sung to the same note, as e. g. in the Psalms, then 
motus obliquus comes in. 

11) When the choir alternates in solo and chorus, or 
when boys' voices alternate with men's voices, the ac- 
companiment should also be varied, a change being ef- 
fected by the use of three part harmony or four part 
without the pedal. The stops should be drawn in pro- 
portion to the strength of the choir and never so as to 
drown or cover the voices. 

12) The Preludes should be on some phrase borrowed 
from the melody about to be sung, and played either with 
accompanying harmonies or in the contrapuntal, imitative 
style. The same may be said of the Postlude. Imme- 
diately before or after the Chant the playing should be 
in free rhythm without bar-fetters. 


1) In the first and second modes c under d is best 
harmonised through /or a and then g minor and d major; 




!EE S 

e. g. 





A modulation by means of e mo/or in the movement 
h a is allowed. The formula a g should never be accom- 
panied by d g, but / c or /' g. 

Bad. Good. Good. 








2) The third and fourth Modes often require in the 
Bass the middle cadence a d; the close is to be made 
with chords of d minor and e major, or d minor, a minor 
and e minor; the latter especially in Antiphons followed 
l)y the Intonation g a c; e. g. 

Al - le - lu - ja. Di - xit Do - mi - nus etc. 

5 « 




In the fourth Tone the closing phrase a, ft, g, f, e, 
requires as accompanying Bass notes d, g, c, d, a, for e); 




JL —", 

f(T\ <=5 *— > 

\S)J • — C=> ,— > 


J ° 


e. g. 


t i_JL 


3) The fifth and sixth Tones can be treated as the 
modern keys of c and / major; as a modulation c, b, a 
is to be coupled with c, e—a; 

e. ff. 

5 6 





4) In the seventh and eighth Tones 
the regular close a g is to be made 
with D G; e. g. j^ 


But in the middle cadence a, g, with F C, or A E; 

e. g. 







5) In the ninth and tenth Tones \Ep 
the principal cadence h, a is made \ » 

with 6 a in the Bass; e. g. 




Middle cadences are #, F, or e, d, which may be 
harmonised in the following manner: 

-§ 1 


rrH o 


ivy c== cr> 





or jf 



* )• 

S <=> 

<=> •— ' 



.. .- <— »-, 


6) The eleventh and twelfth Tones can be treated 
as the modern scale of c major. 


OBSERVATION. The great need of having some 
systematic method of harmony for Plain- Chant, has given 
rise to various schemes, especially of late years. In Rome 
the Chant is never accompanied, et hoc laudo\ in France 
the cantus firmus is usually given to the Pedal in the 
organ, or to a deep bass wind instrument; and the har- 
monies constructed thereon, oftentimes meaningless and 
unconnected, make the Chant itself heavy and wearisome. 
F. A. Gevaert and the Abbe van Damme, two Belgian 
virtuosi, lay down as a fundamental law, that the accom- 
paniment should be strictly diatonic, and that no note - 
should appear in the accompaniment that does not exist 
in the melody. This system, in melodies of a small 
range, would reduce the possible chords to a very 
limited number. The late Father Schneider of Ehingen 
would harmonise Plain -Chant without any diesis or flat 
(jt or i?) appearing even in the cadences. J. GL Metten- 
leiter gave to each note of the melody a distinct chord, 
mostly however according to the laws of two-part counter- 
point (nota contra notam); — a system which demands 
great executive ability on the part of the organist, so as 
to keep on with the melody in this endless succession 
of chords, and produces decided monotony, for most of 
the chords and chord-relations of the same kind will be 
constantly recurring. Dr. Witt finally in his organ accom- 
paniment" to the Ordinarium Missce adopts the diatonic 
system, but with perfect harmonic closes, not overlooking 
however the rhythmical movement of the Chant; and to 
this end he allows connected notes, and neumas or phrases 
that must be sung rapidly and together, to be accom- 
panied by held-down chords, a change being made to a 
new chord when some important note in the passage 
demands it. "The advantages of this theory," he says 
in the Preface, "are fourfold; a) the accompaniment is 
"easier to play because many notes have not a distinct 
"chord; b) it suits the simplicity of the Chant better, 
"and therefore is less monotonous; c) in the melodies 
"themselves all the notes are not of equal importance 
"(accented); many are 'passing notes', and this is decisive 
"for my theory; and lastly it allows the melody to be 
"more prominent, for a melody over a held-down chord 
"stands forth much more boldly, and is therefore more 


"effective," A choice between these different systems, — 
all diatonic however, — is of course a matter of taste: 
The editor of the Magister Clioralis, after testing all of 
them, selected Witt's system as the best, and in con- 
junction with Herr Hanisch prepared the organ accom- 
paniments to the new official edition of the Graduate 
Romanum, now published by Pustet. 1 ) A perusal of the 
Preface to Witt's Organum comitans will repay the in- 
terested inquirer. We would again beg leave to caution 
Organists who may use these published accompaniments, 
against a mistake not unfrequently made, that of regard- 
ing the flats or sharps in the beginning of the stave, as 
the signature of our modern keys. Their presence only 
indicate that the pitch has been transposed, and they are 
placed there to preserve the original position of the 
semitones of the mode, and not to indicate a key. 

As a preparation to this method of accompaniment 
observe what follows: 

1) As several notes of the melody are accompanied 
by one and the same chord the difficulties of accompani- 
ment are diminished; consequently even an indifferent 
Organist can keep himself in line with the singers and 
follow them. . 

2) In a melody or phrase all the notes have not the 
same musical accent; consequently some may be regarded 
and treated as passing notes particularly if they fall on 
the same syllable. 

3) A multitude of chords oppress and obscure the 
melody; in this system it is preserved limpid and clear. 

4) Finally this method of accompaniment responds 
better than any other to the simplicity of the Chant and 
excludes monotony. 

') Organum comitans ad Ordinarium Missce, 1888, oblong folio. — 
Organum comitans ad Grad. Rom. oblong folio, 2 nd edit. 1883 & 1884. 
Org. comit. ad Vesperale Rom. oblong 1 folio. From these are extracted 
and published separately a) Hymni Ves-gerarum, b) Transpositions har- 
monica?, both by Hanisch. This last serves as a complete accompani- 
ment to Psalterium Vespertinum. 


The following examples will illustrate what we have 
been saying: 

Modus I. 

1$. De - o o grä ti - as. 



szzsrf^ziio f 

rf^-CJ . 

5 £= =teF 




0^ O" 


- d - d . y-M " 





j o \>A 


t — a- 


fe= ^F^ 


Modus II. transposed to the fourth above. 
f. Gloria Patri, et Fili - o, * et Spiritu - i san - cto. 





ä 4=t- 



Modus III. 

I£. Et facta ejus intellexerunt u 











^-*o) J 




Modus IV. 

1$. De - o grä - ti - a - - - s. 










Modus V. transposed a third down. 




Ac-ces-si-stis ad Si -on * 






et ci- vi-tä-tem De - i vi - ven-tis, Je-ru-sa-lem 





~R -es-R^ 5 -es-~ 



S2— es- 



le - stem, et te- sta-men - ti no - vi 




-^^^r-^^-^-p— S—^- 



- cs e^h 


-es — es- 



-i — i — p 

me-di- a -to - rem Je - sum, et sän - gui-nis 




es — es- 

- ö ---p : 

I I - - -es- R r^ ft I 

7 es. — es — es 





a-sper- si - 6 - nem me - li - us lo - quen - tern 

jt .--.-L •-.- r^ i J - 

-es-e^ — es- 











Magister Choralis. 



quam A 





g=> Bed - 


Modus VI. transposed one tone higher. 

in do - mum Za-cha- 






Intra- vit Ma- ri- a 


-© — ©- 

ri - se, et sa - lu - tä - vit E - li - sabeth. 



Q> Q>~ 

: — — J — Q w — wi_ 






35. 551 



Modus VII. transposed down a minor third. 





quern con-sti - tu - it 



Fi-de-lis servus et pru-dens 






Do - mi-nus su - per fa- mi- li - am su - am 


^s C5 ~ 






gg ~^ ^ 





ut det il 

lis in tern 



ti - ci men - sü - ram. 







ö ®- 

- o O ' 10 ^ :—: o 


-@ — ^ 



Modus VIII. 

I£. De-o grä-ti-as, al-le-lü-ja, al-le-lü 




fm o cd -^r^ 

— -f 


i iR 

w- P"cd < : 





. JJ - 


' O o 

:s^ w o : 




Modus IX. & X. transposed down a minor third. 
An-ge-lis su is De - us mandä 



~gs o~es~ 










vit de 

te, ut cu-sto 



do w ^Jo 


F=> -s- 


-o — si- 






-F 2 — o- 


di-ant te in 6 

nmi-bus vi 






aHt— ^— &• 





-s s- 







=}— s- 







Modus XI. 

I£. De 



-ö s- 

fO O*" 



^f^~ — r 



-s — F 2 ' 


-^~ ^L— ö-i 

:sg o: 




+ — o- 

grä - ti - as. 



-oo— ö^r: SE 


Modus XI. transposed a fifth down. 

lse - tä 





:g** r 

Be - gi - na coe - li, 





al-le - lü - ja, Qui - a quem me-ru- i - sti 










por - ta - re, al-le - lu-ja. Ee- sur- re- xit, 



i= h-^- 


i» h©- p^r 
I I 

J- J- 

-=_ S- 










sic -ut di-xit, al - le 


ja. O-ra 






R— ©- 

"<=> <=> 





^ — S2- 

-© — © =- 

pro no - bis De - um. AI - le 

lü - ja. 




iS S< 







Modus XII. transposed a fourth down. 

Re - gi - na cce - 











A - ve 

-^- c^ 



A - ve Do - mi - na An- ge - 16 




si 0> + ©" 



4 Ö- 

iS -^- ^ 




ve ra - dix, sal - ve por-ta, 










^ j j^J- 





.J-^L- g-g- 

exquamun-do lux est or - ta: Gau-de, Vir-go 


+-=d— d-©- 







i | 

3S 0"^ 


glo -ri - 6 - sa, su-per o - mnes spe- ci - 6 


~o^d _ 

1 J i -a s: 



-+TT^H &- 


g ^~~ 






le, o val - de de - cö - ra, 

et pro no 

bis Christum ex - 6 


When several Gregorian melodies in different Modes 
follow one another in quick succession as in the Anti- 
phons and Psalms of the Canonical Hours, it will be 
necessary to maintain an uniform pitch, in order that 
the tone colour of the voices may be the same. Con- 
sequently the Organist should be capable of transposing 
rapidly on the organ any given melody to any pitch above 
or below. To be able to succeed in this there is no 
other royal road except constant practice in reading all 
the clefs, unremitting study, so that no difficulty can 
arise that has not been foreseen and overcome, and that 
nothing may happen to render his playing unsteady or 


uncertain. In short, conscientiousness, severe self-criti- 
cism, practical and theoretical study of the scores of the 
old masters, these are the true diplomas of a good or- 
ganist. This can never be repeated too often. 

We cannot condemn too strongly the deplorable 
habit and yet so common of improvising on the organ 
capriciously. Whatever comes into the head at the mo- 
ment, that is dropped from the fingers, whilst for the 
same service the singer dare not sing without rehearsal, 
and is bound to his notes, nor the Preacher enter the 
pulpit without preparation. If many of these organ im- 
provisatori could only see in print or written down what 
they have thrown off as a Prelude or an Interlude they 
would blush for very shame, and thereupon resolve to 
set themselves to study their art and never leave off 
until their printed Preludes and Interludes might no 
longer bring that blush to their cheek. 

We may close this chapter with a short quotation 
from the musical historian Ambros. 1 ) "The innate vital 
"power of these chants is so great, that even without 
"any harmonization, they can be made available for the 
"most intense expression, and nothing is required out- 
"side themselves to bring out their full meaning; whilst 
"on the other hand, for the richest and most artistic 
"harmonic treatment, they furnish inexhaustible matter, 
"and their accumulation through the course of centuries 
"form a treasure, of which art has now the benefit. Music 
"has waxed strong from the mighty vitality of Gregorian 
"Chant; she has been formed on the base of its melodies, 
"from the first rude attempts of the Organum, of Dia- 
" phony, and Faux Bourdons, down to her highest per- 
fection in the Palestrina style." 

') Geschichte der Musik. Vol. II. p. 67. 




CHAPTER 41 st . 


The zeal and industry with which the Clergy in the 
earlier ages cultivated the Chant, is a matter of history. 1 ) 
From the same source we may learn, how the Church, 
not only adopted the words of Ecclesiasticus, cap. 44, 5 
C'Laudemus viros gloriosos et parentes nostros in genera- 
tione sua . . . in peritia sua requirentes modos wiusicos, et 
narrantes carmina scripturarum"), as suitably describing 
the characteristic virtues of many amongst her Saints; 
(In Comm. Conf. Pont.) but also embellished her entire 
Ritual, and brightened it up with the songs of holy and 
enlightened men; and Bishops, Priests and Clerics vied 
with each other in rendering in a worthy manner the 
splendid melodies of St. Gregory; and Councils encouraged 
the conscientious study of the same. 2 ) 

') Laicus in ecclesiis non debet recitare, nee Alleluja dicere, sed psal- 
mos tantum sine Alleluja. Theod. of Canterbury. (See Oerbert, De Cantu, 
T. L, p. 243.) 

2 ) To complete the references already made to the work of National 
and Provincial Councils in furthering the study of Plain-Chant we 
annex the following extracts: In grammatica et superioribus scientiis 
instruantur (clericij, non autem in cantu figurato, sed gregoriano (Cone. 
Neap. 1869). — Invigilent (Episcopi) diligenter ne cantus exponatur con- 
temptui; modo quo executioni mandatur; . . . chorusque a peritis in cantu 
gregoriano regatur; quod vix obtinendum est, nisi studiosa Juventus, prce 
mundana Ecclesice musicam addiscat. Dent igitur operam rectores colle- 
giorum seminariorumque, qui tarn admirabili zelo juventuti instituendce se 
devovent, ut cantum gregorianum alumni apprime doceantur (Cone. Quebec. 
1851). — Doctorum hominum investigationibus audi excitatique Clerici 
omnes cantum firmum seu planum . . . summo studio excolant, ac canora 


"If then," writes Jannsen, "we address ourselves to 
the Clergy first, we do so under the firm persuasion that 
the study of Plain-Chant and its good execution depend 
principally upon them .... But it is, alas! too true, that 
many amongst them, through carelessness or want of 
knowledge in this matter, furnish the best possible rea- 
sons for its decay and depreciation. We are forced to 
say with Cardinal Bona "TJt fatear quod res est, pudet* 
me plerosque ecclesiasticos vivos totias vitce cursu in cantu 
versari, ipsum vero cantum, quod turpe est, ignorare" 
(Be cantu eccl. §. Ill N°. I) 1 ) Stein, who in his excel- 
lent little book 2 ) extends the duties of the Priest as 
Master in his Church, also to the department of Church 
Music, mentions, that formerly musical culture was espe- 
cially to be met with amongst the Clergy, and that the 

suavique voce promere sciant. Hujus cantus frequentes lectiones in majori- 
bus et in minoribus nostris seminariis hdberi, ac de eo bis in anno examen 
fieri volumus et mandamus (Coc. Burdigal. 1859). — In Seminariis lectio- 
nem cantus omnes frequenter adeant, ut clerici, cum ad sacerdotium fuerint 
evecti et ad regimen alicujus ecclesice vocati, scholas cantorum instituere 
valeant, ejusque prceesse exemplo sancti Gregorii Magni non dedignentur; 
et ita, vel per se vel per scholares, publicum officium faciant expleri 
(Cone. Tolos. 1850). — Cantus gregoriani schola in omnibus seminariis 
esse debet. Hanc Episcopi publicis experimentis, prwmiis propositis et pros- 
sentia ipsa sua, Gregorii Magni exemplum imitantes, excitare ac decorare 
curent. Clerici omnes cantus ejusmodi scliolam frequentent. Mansionarii, 
Magistri chori et prcecentores hanc cantus ecclesiastici peritiam legitimo> 
comprobent experimento (Cone. Urbinat. 1859). — Curent Episcopi, ut in 
seminariis scholam cantus fgregorian.) . . . omnes clerici tempestive fre- 
quentent, nee ex facili ad sacros ordines admittant, quos, nulla excusante 
legitima causa, earn neglexisse vel non satis profecisse compererit (Cone. 
Eavenn. 1855). The National Synod of Thnrles in the Chap, de Eucha- 
risiia, can. 38, says: "Nidlus cantus nisi gravis, et ecclesiasticus , in Ec- 
clesiis adhibeatur. Rectores Seminariorum curent, prcepositis etiam pros- 
miis, ut alumni in Cantu gravi et ecclesiastico bene instituantur :" See 
Preface for the Synod of Maynooth. The Council of Laodicea (in the 
4 th century) decreed: "Non oportet nisi canonicos cantores qui suggestum 
ascendunt, et ex diphtera seu membrana canunt, alium quemlibet in Ec- 
clesia psallereP 

x ) Methode (les vrais principes) du Chant Gregorien. H. Dessain,, 

2 ) Die katholische Kirchenmusik nach ihrer Bestiynmung und ihrer 
dermaligen Beschaffenheit. Köln, Bachern. 


greater and better portion were only turned away from 
it when the degenerate style of Church-Music was first 
introduced, but with unpardonable carelessness they re- 
mained inactive. "But for this indifference the ignorance 
we have now to deplore would never have become so 
great or so universal." *) 

He therefore counsels scientific instruction in singing, 
at as early an age as possible; and if at all feasible, in 
the Pianoforte and Organ, for those who aspire to the 
Sacred Ministry. "If in early life the education of the 
future Priest does not embrace the science of music and 
its practical application, later on, when he enters the 
Ecclesiastical Seminary, and is engrossed by other and 
more important studies, this instruction can no longer 
be efficiently imparted. Here it will be too late to begin 
the musical education of a young man; too late even to 
direct him in the proper rendering of the simple litur- 
gical Chants of the Altar." Proksch: 2 ) "The Priest him- 
self in his Church, must be a Singer, even if he only 
have to sing at the Altar: for he has the supervision of 
the Church Music, of the popular chants, and of the 

*) May we venture to hope, that by reason of the greater interest 
awakened amongst the Clergy, and their deep penetration, the words 
of Fr. Bollens in his deutsche Chor algesang in der katholischen Kirche, 
p. 180, may have lost their force. "Instruction in Gregorian Chant 
is mostly entrusted to men, who are utterly ignorant of its principles, 
and who fail to command the attention of their pupils, whereby the 
Singing Lesson becomes an hour's recreation and amusement. The 
Teacher is satisfied if his pupils can sing the Collects and the Preface 
tolerably, or intone the Gloria or Be Missa est; a feat however which 
he can get few to accomplish." "Sunt etiam plerique Clerici vel Monachi, 
qui artem Musicai jucundissimos neque sciunt, neque scire volunt, et, quod 
gravius est, scientes refutant et abhorrent, et quod si aliquis musicus eos 
de cantu, quern vel non rite, vel incomposite proferunt, compellat, impu- 
denter irati obstrepunt, nee veritati adquiescere volunt, suumque errorem 
suo conamine defendunt." Guido of Arezzo, see Gekbekt, Scriptores, 
T. II. p. 51. One would think these words were written in the 19 th 
oentury instead of the 11 th so well do they describe the present 
•condition of affairs. 

2 ) Aphorismen über katholische Kirchenmusik. Prag, Bellmann. 


Organ-playing . . ." Antony: 1 ) "If however many person» 
seek to excuse themselves on the ground, that in the 
matter of musical capabilities nature has treated them 
after the manner of a step-mother, and consequently they 
do not know their errors in singing, nor how to correct 
them; they are bound nevertheless to avail themselves 
of external aid, in order to work out, what they, left to 
themselves, are not in a position to do; for it is written: 
(James iv. 17) Scienti igitur bonum facer e, et non facienti, 
peccatum est Uli" Amberger: 2 ) "Whoseever enters the 
domain of Liturgy, is as much bound to learn Gregorian 
Chant and to sing, according to the mind of the Church,, 
as he is to be a faithful observer of the Rubrics" "Even 
though every one may not be able to produce or to ap- 
preciate that wonderful unison of Tone, and those most 
tender movements of the heart of the Church, yet it is 
the duty of every one, with holy joy, to set value on 
the songs of the Church, and not to put them aside with 
indifference; to try and understand their truth, their 
beauty and their power, and not through neglect of ne- 
cessary practice, or through clumsy rendering of them,, 
deprive them of all feeling. Every one should try and feel 
more and more the beauty of Plain-Chant, in order that 
he may sing it with devotion." "Let no man say: — the 
people understand very little about it — ; you sing in the 
name of the Church, to the honour of her eternal Spouse; 

*) Archäolog. liturg, Lehrbuch des gregorianischen Kirchengesanges. 
Münster, Coppenrath. 

2 ) Pastoraltheologie, IL vol. From page 216 to 234 the writer 
enumerates various motives to encourage the study of Liturgical Song. 
The pastoral letter of the Bishop of Ratisbon, on the question of 
Church -Music, must also he mentioned here. C. Sev. Meister writes 
in his valuable work "das katholische deutsche Kirchenlied": "The Chant 
of the Church is an essential part of public worship; its history is a 
portion of Church history; the knowledge of it, from an historical and 
liturgical point of view, is part of theological science? See also Durandus? 
Rationale divinorum ofjßciorum, Lib. IL De cantore, de psalmista etc. 


but you must also be persuaded that through this elevating 
chant, the hearts of the faithful are effectually reached." 

On the other hand the following remarks are worthy 
of the Cleric's attention: "The Singer should be a man 
of prayer:" St. Bernard: 1 ) Sunt quidam voce dissoluti, 
qui vocis suae modulations gloriantur, nee tantum gaudent 
de dono gratice, sed etiam alios spemunt. Tumentes elatione 
aliud cantant, quam libri habeant, tanta est levitas vocis, 
forsitan et mentis. Cantant ut placeant populo magis quam 
Deo. Si sic cantas, ut ab aliis laudem quceras, vocem tuam 
vendis, et fads earn non tuam, sed suam. Viros decet 
virili voce cantare, et non more fosmineo tinnulis vel falsis 
vocibus velut histrionicam imitari lasciviam. The expression 
"castigatio vocis" when the Amict is given in the ordi- 
nation of a Sub -deacon may also be understood in this 
sense. In the book known as Instituta Patrum we read: 
Nee volubilitate nimia confundenda quce dicimus, qua et 
distinctio perit et affectus ... cui contrarium est vitium 
nimice tarditatis. — Jerome of Moravia 2 ) adds : Nunquam 
eantus nimis basse incipiatur, quod est ululare, nee nimis 
alte, quod est clamare; sed mediate, quod est cantare. — 
And finally Cardinal Bona: Receptum a majoribus can- 
turn integrum oportet, et illibatum custodire, ne si semel 
aberrare coeperimus a semitis antiquis, quas posuerunt 
Patres nostri, paulatim inconsultis emtationibus religionis 
integritas destruatur. 

Denique damnati sunt Uli, qui parcentes vocibus suis 
rapinam faciunt in holocaustis, qui vitulos scilicet labiorum 
suorum Domino redder e negligentes , vel dolorem capitis 
vel stornaclii debilitatem, vel exilitatem vocis prcetendunt 
ad excusandas excusationes in peccatis: cum r ever a totum 
in eis sibi vindicent mentis evagatio, distractio cordis, car- 

*) See Bona, Div. Psalmodia, cap. XVII, de cantu Eccles, §. V. 
2 ) In Coussemacker, Scriptores. 


nis inertia, et propria salutis incuria. Non enim conside- 
rant, quod, qui a communi labor e se subtrahunt, communi 
etiam retributione carebunt, et qui Ecclesiam Servitute, 
proximum cedificatione , Angelos Icetitia, sanctos gloria, 
Deum cultu defraudant, ipsi quoque Dei gratia, sanctorum 
suffragiiSy Angelorum custodia, proximi adjutorio, Ecdesm 
beneficiis se reddunt indignos. Eis enim, qui legitime 
canunt, et sapienter psallant (inquit Rupertus Abbas) re- 
muneratio vel premium erit cowmen ceternum. 

CHAPTER 42 d . 

The Choir -Master or Conductor is the very soul of 
the Choir, animating and governing it. On him devolves 
the duty of teaching his Choristers Gregorian Chant, and 
securing by every means within his reach, that its simple 
but heavenly melodies be rendered in a becoming and 
edifying manner. This pre -supposes a thorough know- 
ledge, theoretical and practical, of the Ancient Modes 
and Melodies, for the soul must have a body; but no 
knowledge howsoever extensive, if unaccompanied by a 
just esteem of the Chant itself, and of the honourable 
position it occupies in the Church's Liturgy, will ensure 
its being worthily rendered, for the body without the 
spirit is dead. Here however we encounter the first 
great obstacle to the proper teaching and rendering of 
Plain- Chant; for, most Catholic Choir -Masters, whilst 
thoroughly well grounded in the principles of modern 
music, and conversant with the manifold and marvellous 
adaptabilities of the major and minor mode; — (which 
date only from the latter half of the 17 th century;) — 
carry their researches no farther back, and when you 
speak to them of Gregorian Chant, they turn away from 
you with a contemptuous shrug of the shoulders, as if 


you broached a subject utterly out of joint with all 
correct notions of music or things musical. We there- 
fore venture to enumerate what may be regarded as the 
necessary qualifications of a Catholic Choir-Master. 

1) He should have a knowledge of the Latin tongue, 
as the Liturgical text is all written in that language. 1 ) 
Without a fair knowledge of Latin, he cannot understand 
the sentiments conveyed in the words, and therefore 
cannot give the just expression to these words, or to the 
melody in which they are clothed; for it should be ever 
remembered, that in Ecclesiastical Chant "the text is the 
master, the notes the slaves." If however any Conductor 
be not acquainted with Latin, a translation will be of 
some assistance, although it may not give the precise 
meaning of every word. It is also desirable, as we have 
remarked in a previous chapter, that he should under- 
stand and know how to use the Ecclesiastical Calendar, 
or Directorium (Or do); in order that he may find the 
Chants prescribed for the day or season, and regulate 
their performance in accordance with the requirements 
of the rubric. The conscientious Choir- Master would 
moreover be careful to teach his singers the meaning of 
the words they are called upon to sing, and explain the 
mutual relations of Word and Tone. 

2) The Liturgy is so beautiful in itself, and conveys 
so clearly the mind of the Church in her various solem- 
nities throughout the year, that no Catholic who observes 
it closely and strives to understand it, can fail to be in- 
fluenced by that peculiar spirit which animates the Church 
herself, and gives force and meaning to the several fun- 
ctions of her public worship. Now the Catholic Choir- 
Master who seeks to discharge his duty faithfully, must 

*) We specially recommend "The Catholic's Latin Instructor" by 
Eev. E. Caswall. London. Burns & Oates. 


allow this spirit to take possession of him; he must as 
it were live with the Church, and enter into her feelings; 
— weep with her in her sorrow and exult in her joy; — 
otherwise he can never realize for himself or those under 
him, the meaning of the occasion which she solemnizes, 
or of the words which she employs. No matter how 
great his musical talents otherwise may be, the Choir- 
Master who cannot identify his way of thinking with 
that of the Church, as expressed in her Liturgy, and 
who fancies that he adequately discharges his duty by 
merely making music whilst a religious function is being 
gone through, is deficient in one of the most important 
qualifications for his position. 

3) The particular occasion or Festival, 1 ) also serves 
to determine the style of Intonation, the rhythmic move- 
ment, and the more or less solemn delivery of the Chant. 
On High Festivals, even the singing of the Psalms should 
approximate in its movement to the melodic Chants of 
the Graduate or Antiphonariuni, while on less solemn 
Feasts and Ferias, it should have throughout the cha- 
racter of mere recitation, be sung quicker and on a lower 
tone. Even the melodic chant may be sung quicker on 
these occasions. In Bequiem Masses, the voice should 
be subdued, yet clear, pitched in a quiet tone, but not 

4) The Tone of each piece, its compass and pecu- 
liarities, should be carefully explained, in order that the 
special character of each of the modi may be clearly 
understood and conveyed; and the Singers should be 

') The Inst. Patr. distinguishes three classes of Festivals. On 
great occasions one should sing with his whole heart, and soul, and 
voice; on Sundays and Feasts of Saints more quietly; on ordinary 
days, the manner of chanting should be so regulated, that all may 
sing carefully and devotionally, without straining of the voice, with 
feeling and without fault (cum affectu absque defectu)* 

Magister Choralis. 10 


trained to strike unwonted intervals with accuracy and 
without hesitation, and to master fully the melodic or 
rhythmical difficulties which may occur in a piece. 

5) A clear understanding should exist between the 
Organist and Choir-Master, as regards the pitch of each 
piece. As high and low voices unite to sing Plain-Chant, 
the pitch should he so regulated, i. e. transposed, as that 
the entire piece can be sung by all with equal power 
and without any extraordinary effort. l ) The division of 
the choir into two sections, such as Chanters and full 
Choir, or Boys and Men, or upper (Soprano and Tenor) 
voices and under (Alto and Bass) voices, so that the 
several periods of the melody may be sung alternately, 
and occasional emphatic passages be delivered by all 
united, varies the Chant and renders it easy and animated, 
whilst it obviates many difficulties which in the continuous 
chant of a piece by the full choir are unavoidable. 
Different chants following one another alternately should 
be so transposed as to have approximately the same 
pitch and character. 

6) The Choir-Master should be thoroughly acquainted 
with the power and capabilities of his Singers, and only 
allow those to sing, who are sufficiently instructed in the 
Principles and Practice of Plain-Chant, and are possessed 
of sound tuneful voices, and a good distinct pronunciation; 
The flippant saying: "for Plain- Chant any voice is good 
enough," betrays not only gross ignorance and contempt 
of art,, but also unpardonable irreverence towards the 
consecrated Chant of the Catholic Church. Young fresh 
voices when singing up the scale, and especially when 
the higher notes are touched are in danger of going out 
of tune; this should not be allowed, and it is the duty 

l ) See quotation from Jerome of Moravia page 222. 


of the Master, quietly and without delay (by a stronger 
or quicker delivery of the voice) to bring them back to 
the normal tone. 

7) The quantity (i. e. length or brevity) of the syl- 
lables must be specially attended to, for the varying 
rhythm of speech, and absolute freedom in delivery, 
unfettered by any bar - measurement , form the grand 
features of Gregorian Chant. The long and short notes 
should never be subjected to any law of a mechanical 
metronome. We recommend Chapters 8 th and 9 th of this 
Manual to the careful perusal of Choir-Mas ters. 1 ) Steady 
and marked motions of the hand should direct the Singers 
to bind together the several note-groupings, the Words 
and Phrases in alternate slower and quicker enunciation 
and with stronger or weaker accent into one perfect 
whole. 2 ) 

8) The subdivision too of the piece into Phrases, 
Periods and Sections depends in a great measure on the 
Conductor. The breathing places are indicated by the 
words and the perpendicular lines or bars drawn across 
the stave, while for Pauses the signs of punctuation mark 
the natural place. The Syllables of the same word should 
never be separated. If however such a number of notes 

*) Eev. F. X. Habeel in the Magister choralis states it as the 
result of his own experience, that a choir of from 15 to 20 mixed 
voices can sing with greater ease, swing, and unity, from one copy 
of the Folio edition of the Graduate Romanum than from ten copies of 
the octavo edition; and then adds; "our forefathers made no blunder, 
when after the discovery of printing they had the Choral Books 
published in Folio." 

2 ) [A writer in the "Tablet" of Sept. 9 th 1876 giving a reason for 
the excellence of the Plain-Chant singing in Batisbon Cathedral says 
that "every note is led by the conductor's baton, and thus expression 
is gained by emphasis being placed upon certain notes and passages. 
No comparative value as to time is given to the notes themselves, but the 
length of time they are sustained, and the force with which they are 
sung, are made entirely subservient to the meaning of the words, 
as interpreted by the conductor of the choir." W. H. Beewer.] 



must be sung to one syllable as to necessitate a rest for 
breathing, then the Choir -Master should before hand 
mark a suitable place in the neuma, where the entire 
choir may take a short, almost imperceptible breath. A 
wise discretion in regulating the speed of the movement, 
is another desirable qualification in a Choir-Master. Where 
there is a small number of choristers he should be on 
the alert to prevent too great haste, and where a large 
number, too great a tendency to drawl. Where these 
two faults are not guarded against, the clear distinct 
pronunciation of the words and the pure just intonation 
of the notes suffer; and when such elements are wanting, 
Gregorian Chant becomes contemptible, indeed ridiculous. 
As a rule the style of singing Plain -Chant, should be 
lively, crisp, fresh, at times very animated, always with 
an easy rhythmic swing throughout, and not that wretched 
habit of slow, lumbering, tedious drawling, which has 
already earned such a bad name for Liturgical Music, 
and in which the voices are certain, as the piece ad- 
vances, to sing out of tune. 

9) The Conductor should also determine the degree 
of strength or softness of the note and the increasing 
or decreasing of the voice in the several members or 
phrases. The effects of piano, forte and crescendo are 
not to be overlooked or neglected in Plain-Chant, although 
no uniform rule can be established, and still less should 
written marks of expression be in the Choral Books, be- 
cause adventitious, effects and phrasing are more of a 
hindrance than a help, and quickly lose their charm. 

10) From all that has been said it is evident that 
conscientious and persevering practice is of paramount 
importance. Where the Choir-Master does not exercise 
his Choristers by continual practice, and keep them alive 
to the sanctity and importance of the duty they discharge, 
but trusts everything to chance, and to his long er- 


perience and acquaintance with the subject matter, no 
blessing or good result can be expected from Gregorian 
Chant rendered by such a choir. More than any other 
kind of Music, Plain-Chant should be deeply, attentively 
studied, and again and again rehearsed, if its performance 
is intended to be effective; for "Gregorian Chant is a 
matter of no easy acquirement, as the large schools of 
past centuries and the examples of learned and holy 
men can testify, but it demands earnest and profound 
study." *) One or two special or general rehearsals will 
never enable a Choir to prove itself effective in the dif- 
ferent pieces to be chanted during the various religious 
functions. These rehearsals, special and general, «must 
be regular and constantly recurring, and must embrace 
not only the younger or less instructed members of the 
Choir, but all the members, and the Chants should be 
repeated again and again until even those who are ac- 
customed to trust to their neighbours, and thereby be- 
come such an unpleasant drag both on Conductor and 
Choir, are made thoroughly sure of their work. A tho- 
rough and continued instruction is the forerunner of a 
good, natural, easy, certain, worthy and edifying Chant. 

CHAPTER 43 d . 

The observations of the last chapter are also appli- 
cable to Organists, especially when the two functions of 
Choir-Master and Organist are united in the one person, 
as is most frequently the case. A glance, moreover, at 
the remarks made on the Organ and its employment in 
Plain-Chant, in the Appendix to the 2 nd part, will clearly 
establish the difference that exists, 1 st between a Pianist 
-and an Organist, 2 nd17 between a right skilful Organist in 

*) Amberger, 1. c. p. 


a general sense and one whose duty it is to accompany 
the Chant. The Organist, in a Plain- Chant Choir, should 
lead the singers, facilitate the delivery of the Chant for 
them, and by a clear, steady and correct playing of the 
Plain-Chant melody, regulate and control its movement. 
The employment of the Organ in the several portions- 
of the Liturgy, and at the various seasons of the year r 
is regulated by formal Decrees of the Church bearing 
on the subject; 1 ) and the sacredness of the functions and 
sublimity of the text which it is called on to accompany, 
should influence the style of playing to be adopted. 

1) The accentus of the Celebrant and Sacred Mini- 
sters at the Altar should never be accompanied, and 

l ) Bened. XIV. Bullar. magn. Cone. Mediol. I.: Organo tantum in 
ecclesiis locus sit; tibice, comua, et reliqua musica instrumenta exclu- 
dantur. The S. E. C. furnishes the following Decrees on the Organ. 

1) Quoad Organi sonitum strictim servanda est Cozremonialis dis- 
positio non pulsandi Organa in Dominicis sacri Adventus, et Quadra- 
gesimcB ad Missas solemnes? et Vesperas, non obstante consuetudine, et 
abusus est eliminandus. Die 11. Sept. 1847. Taurinen. Gardellini 
n. 5117 ad 1. Et die 22. Julii 1848. Florentina seu Ordinis 
Minorum de Observantia. n. 5126 ad 2. 

2) Organa in Dominicis III. Adventus, et IV. Quadrages. pulsari 
debent in Missa, et in Vesperis tantum, non vero in aliis horis Cano- 
nicis. Die 2. Aprilis 1718. Beneventana. n. 3905 ad 3. 

3) Organa non silent, quando Ministri Altaris Diaconus scilicet, et 
Subdiaconus utuntur in Missa Dalmatica, et Ttmicella, licet color sit 
violaceus. Die 2. Sept. 1741. Aquen. n. 4119 ad 9. Et potest servari 
consuetudo pulsandi Organa in Missa Rogationum et tempore Quadra- 
gesimce, Adventus, et Vigiliarum, in Missis votivis B. M. V., quaz in 
singulis Sabbatis solemniter celebrantur, et in ejusdem Litaniis, quo? 
post Vesperas decantantur. Die 14. April. 1753. Coimbricen. Dubio- 
rum. n. 4233 ad 4. Et die 3. Aug. 1839. Piscien. n. 4858 ad 9. 

4) Si partes divini Officii, vel Missce omittantur in Choro ob sonitum 
Organi, turn submissa voce dicenda, quo3 omittuntur: quando vero non 
pulsatur, integre sunt cantanda. Die 22. Juli 1848. Sen en. n. 5102 ad 4. 

5) Servari potest consuetudo pulsandi tantum Organum ad respon- 
dendum, dum in Missa cantatur Ite Missa est. Die 11. Sept. 1857. 
n. 5102 ad 6. 

6) Sonus Organi toto rigore potest intermisceri cum cantu, quando- 
in Missa solemni seu Pontificali integer Symbolus in notis, seu in 
cantu Gregoriano et firmo cantatur in Choro. Die 22. Mart. 1862, 
Sancti Marci. n. 5318. ad 7. 


during the Elevation the greatest silence and devotion 
should prevail. 1 ) 

2) The use of the Organ is forbidden during Advent 
and Lent, (from Ash -Wednesday to the Gloria of Holy 
Saturday) at Mass, or at the Divine Office, when de 
Tempore. From this rule we must except the 3 d Sunday 

1 of Advent (called Gaudete Sunday), 2 ) and the 4 th Sunday 
(Lcetare) of Lent; on which occasions, as also on Festi- 
vals celebrated ritu dupl. or semidupl. during these peni- 
tential seasons, at solemn votive masses, and at the Gloria 
of Holy Thursday, the Organ should be played. 

3) The alternate phrases of the Kyrie, Gloria, Sanctus 
and Agnus Dei may be omitted by the singers and only 
played on the Organ, but then the words omitted should 
be recited by one of the singers mediocri voce. This 
permission however does not extend to the Credo, the 
entire of which must be sung. 3 ) The Tract, Sequence, 
Offertory and Communion may also be recited in the 
manner described, when the Organ plays; but the Introit 
should be sung entire {minus the repetition which may 
be recited) as also the Gradual, or at least a portion 
of it. In Vespers the Antiphons need not be sung after 
the Psalms, but only recited; they should always be sung 
before. The alternate verses of the Hymn may be recited 
in the same manner. 

4) With regard to the Mass for the Dead, a distinction 
must be drawn between the Office and the Mass. At the 

*) The Cceremoniale Episcoporum (from the beginning' of the 17 th 
century) and several Provincial Councils speak no doubt of a quiet 
and devotional playing of the Organ during the Elevation, and in 
Rome, except in the Sixtine, this practice is universal, and therefore 
may be tolerated. 

2 ) When the Vigil of Christmas falls on Sunday the Organ is played. 

3 ) Cum dicitur symbolum in Missa non est intermiscenditm Organum, 
sed Mud per chorum cantu intelligibili proferatur. (Ccer. Ep. lib. I. N°. 10.) 


Office the Organ should be silent; at the Mass however 
if music, i. e. figured music be employed the Organ may 
accompany the voices and cease with them. This per- 
mission also serves for the Ferias of Advent and Lent. 1 ) 

5) Where the custom prevails of substituting the 
music of the Organ for the Chant of the Deo gratias 
after the Be Missa est, this practice may be continued, 
according to a decree of the Sacred Congregation of Rites. 
(11. Sept 1847, in Angelopol, ad 6.) Nevertheless the 
practice of singing the response is more to be encouraged. 

6) The Organist should employ and vary the stops 
on his instrument according to circumstances, and take 
special care that the delivery of the Chant may be en- 
riched with all that light and shade, which the text 
demands, and a well-played instrument can impart. The 
Office of the Organ, — that of handmaid and guide to 
the Chant, — precludes that bad taste which would have 
good Organ- playing consist in a confused noisy jumble 
of melody and harmony with every stop drawn out; be- 
cause such a disproportion of sound between the voices 
and the instrument intended to support them, renders 
the hearing and understanding of the words utterly im- 
possible. The judicious Organist "clothes the Chant, 
"sometimes with lightest breathings and the most gentle 
"lisping, sometimes with grave, majestic tones, that go 
"on increasing in power and fashion themselves to har- 
"monies, whose united sound grows louder and fuller, 
"until the chanting of God's praises becomes like a head- 
long mountain torrent that carries all before it, and 
"consoles and lifts up the heart of the devout Christian." 2 ) 

x ) By the words of the Decree "Si musica adhibeatur", the Gre- 
gorian Chant is excluded and may not be accompanied by the Organ, 
äs by the word, mime« is always understood figured or polyphonic 
music whether written with or without Organ. 

Q ) Smeddink. II. Jahrgang. Ccecilia. p. 25. 


7) Just intonation depends for the most part on the 
Organist. When the Celebrant at the Altar intones, it 
is much to be desired that his intonation should accord 
with that of the choir, so that Priest and People, Pastor 
and flock may praise God in unison. To this end the 
Organist should close his Prelude or Interlude on the 

) note on which the Celebrant should commence, or by 
drawing a very soft stop, he may just touch the required 
note, and the Priest, if he have a fair musical ear, will 
have little difficulty in catching it up. 

8) It is undeniable indeed that no amount of effort 
or no mechanical appliance as yet discovered, will enable 
a piped or keyed instrument, such as the Organ, to give 
the verbal accent, as the human voice alone can; and 
many rhythmical melodic progressions, call up strange 
and unfriendly chords, which to a modern musician seem 
illegitimate, and have thereby originated those various 
systems of harmonising Plain -Chant, what we have al- 
ready, spoken of. However these and similar difficulties 
should not dishearten the young Organist, bat rather 
urge him to greater study and more intimate acquain- 
tance with the nature and characteristics of the Church 
modes and of mediaeval harmony, that he may be enabled 
on comparison, to see how very different it is from har- 
mony in the modern acceptation of the term. All that 
is to be desired is, that the worshippers in every Catholic 
Church may be able to realize the truth of Cardinal 
Bona's words: 1 ) "The harmonious tones of the Organ 
"rejoice the sorrowing hearts of men, and remind them 
"of the joys of the heavenly city, they spur on the tepid, 
"they comfort the fervent, they call the just to love, and 
"sinners to repentance." But to attain this desirable 
end the Catholic Organist must also keep before his eyes 

l ) Bona, div. psalm, c. 17, §. 2, ad finein. 


the warning of the same pious and learned Cardinal: 
"The playing of the Organ must be earnest and appro- 
priate, so that it may not, by its agreeableness, draw 
"to itself and monopolize the whole attention of the soul, 
"but rather furnish motives and an opportunity, for medi- 
cating on the words that are being sung, and thereby 
"promote feelings of true devotion." 

9) The Organist should never play in a wanton or 
profane style, or themes that can have no connexion 
with the Chants to be accompanied or the Function, that 
is being celebrated. Except the Organ no other musical 
instrument is allowed in Church service. Should it be 
desirable on very solemn occasions to employ music scored 
for Instruments, then the consent of the Bishop must 
be sought and obtained for each occasion. 

CHAPTER 44 th . 


The system of musical training to be adopted in a 
Plain- Chant choir, differs in many respects from that 
usually followed in the case of harmonized Church-Music. 
The rhythm of Gregorian Chant, so closely allied as it 
is with the verbal accent, and the treasure of melody in 
which it is so rich; — melody however, which to a singer 
trained only in modern music often seems uncouth and 
unmanageable; — furnish, for every class of voice> exer- 
cises of such difficulty, that even a well- trained chorister, 
at the first attempt, and without special instruction or 
close study of the Gregorian Tone-system, will certainly 
fail to render them effectively. Gregorian Chant requires, 
besides good distinct pronunciation, a clear understand- 
ing of the subject, a quick apprehension of its treatment, 
and a carefully cultivated voice. Whosever therefore is 
called upon to sing Gregorian, should in the first instance 


be properly trained by a competent teacher, at least in 
those places where such teachers might be reasonably 
expected to be found; such as Cathedral Churches and 
Ecclesiastical seminaries. 1 ) And he who can sing Plain- 
Chant well, tunefully, and faultlessly, will be able to 
sing any Church -Music that may be placed before him 
in true Church style. 2 ) 

We will here set forth in one short paragraph the 
qualification of a good Plain-Chant Chorister. "He must 
obey implicitly and attentively every hint, word,- wish 
and direction of the Choir -Master or Conductor, even 
when they may be in opposition to Ms own better judg- 
ment." This blind obedience, easy enough to a true 
musician, should not spring merely from a love of order,, 
but above all from a deep feeling of humility. "In 
chanting," says St. Ambrose, "modesty is the first rule, 
so that with him who gradually begins to sing or speak, 
the principles of modesty may mark his progress." 3 ) A 
genuine feeling of reverence for the Lord's house, will 
never be content with having what is prescribed carefully 
sung] but will strive, both in rehearsals 4 ) and performance,; 
to express the meaning, importance, and liturgical raison 
d'etre of the Chant itself, and make clear the end and 
spirit of the Church in each of her solemn functions. 
"Who can repeat the wonderful song of the Church, and 
not be moved by it? Hence whosoever undertakes to- 

*) The Council of Trent commanded that the Chant should be 
taught in all Ecclesiastical Seminaries. Several National and Pro- 
vincial Synods (including Thurles and Maynooth) reiterate this com- 
mand; but in many places these Decrees are allowed to remain a 
dead letter, for want of competent teachers. 

•) Rev. F. X. Habekl makes it a rule to commence the musical 
education of his boys with Plain- Chant. 

3 ) Ambrosius de Offic. minist. L. I. c. 18. 

4 ) "The first requisite," says an old theoretician, Jekome op Mo- 
eavia quoted by Coussemack^ek. "is, that what is to be sung should 
be clearly understood by all, beforehand." 


sing Ecclesiastical Chants, must study to know and un- 
derstand what are the feelings and sentiments, which on 
her various Festivals, should come as it were from the 
very heart of the Church, pass through the heart and 
mouth of the Chanter into the hearts of all, and enkindle 
in all a flame of uniform love. It is only thus that 
Gregorian Chant can produce its legitimate effect." *) 

Essential conditions for an earnest and effective 
rendering of Plain-Chant is, a heart full of faith, a feel- 
ing of joyful hope, 2 ) a recollected mind, 3 ) a spirit of 
devotion, earnest prayer, 4 ) and the good intention of 
doing all for the greater honour and glory of God. 5 ) 

"The Church has just reason to complain of those, 
who with unpardonable levity, putting aside all the rules 
of the Chant, alter and modify the Tones at pleasure, 
substitute the weakness and agreeableness of the semi- 
tone for the power and earnestness of the full-tone, who 
make no distinction between long and short notes, or 
study not to give their voices a character of devotional 
tenderness and overlook the intrinsic worth of the Chant 
itself, dragging it on lazily, as if it were a stone of great 

*) Amberger, loc. cit. p. 231. 

2 ) "Notes are good for nothing that come not from a joyful heart. 
Melancholy people may have good voices, but they can never sing 
well." Jekome of Moravia. 

3 ) Whilst singing think of nothing else but what yon are engaged 
at." Bernhard. 

4 ) In the beginning of an old Psaltenum (now the property of 
the Kreisbibliothek in Passau) written in the monastery of Seeon 
A. D. 1434, we find the following prayer for Choristers. Deus, omni- 
potens redemptor mundi, qui pro salute humani generis in hunc mundum 
venisti, peccatores redimere pretioso sanguine tuo: exaudi orationem meam, 
per quam ego indignus peccator te deprecor, ut psalmi, quos cantabo, digne 
intereedant apud te pro peccatis meis. Creator mundi, cunctipotens Dens, 
spes ardentibus, gloria resurgentibus , suppliciter per hos psalmos clemen- 
tiam tuam imploro, quos pro salute vivorum sive defunctorum decantabo, 
ut per eos a perpetuis eripias tormentis et premium ceternce beatitudinis 
>concedas. Per Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen. 

5 ) "If you seek the edification of your hearers when you sing, the 
more you shun vanity, the more you will edify them." Bonaventura. 


weight; now precipitating it in unbecoming haste, and 
again vulgarising it by painful shouting, or by vitiated 
or imperfect pronunciation of the vowels, or by the ad- 
option of various other faulty mannerisms." ! ) 

"Bossuet's funeral orations when declaimed by a 
good orator terrify and inspire one, but when uttered 
by an indifferent reader, not only produce no effect, but 
engender coldness and indifference. So is it with Plain- 
Chant" 2 ) 

"Speaking to yourselves in Psalms and Hymns and 
spiritual canticles, singing and making melody in your 
hearts to the Lord" (Ephesians Y. 19.) 



CHAPTER 45 th . 


In Chapter 7 th p. 30, when writing of the numerous 
vicissitudes which the notation of Gregorian Chant has 
undergone, mention was made of the fixed method of 
noting the Chant now established in the authentic Choral 
Books by the Papal Commission. The rendering of the 
Chant however, as it should be in practice, is only al- 
luded to there in general terms, and must now be more 
fully explained in this the aesthetic portion of our work. 

In modern musical notation we have abundant means 
at our disposal by way of signs wherewith to express 
and determine the acuteness or gravity, the length or 
brevity, the strength or delicacy of a sound, as well as 
the quicker or slower pace of any movement or of any 

*) Ambbkgee, loc. cit. p. 233. 

2 ) Cloet, Recueil de Melodies, Tom. II., p. 30*. 


parts thereof. l ) In Gregorian notation however , since 
the discovery of Guido's stave, only the fixing of the 
intervals and the marking of the accented syllables in the 
new Roman editions seem to furnish any safe guide to 
the singer. But if we bear in mind the fundamental rule 
for all Plain-Chant; "Potius considerandus est sensus quam 
modulatio" ; — the text commands the tone; — further 
indications are scarcely necessary. Is it not a well known 
fact that the living word produces a very different im- 
pression on the listener according to the talent and dif- 
ferent training of the speaker, even though in each case 
the expression marks be most rigidly adhered to? As a 
rule a singer of good mental gifts and refined musical 
feeling will only find himself embarrassed by the heavy 
armour of the prescribed lights and shades, and will pro- 
duce a more certain and better effect with the simple 
"sling" of a tone connected with the word in an intimate 
.■and natural manner. 

OBSERVATION. The alphabetical letters of Borna- 
nus, who taught in S* Gall fully a century after S* Gre- 
gory were intended to serve as a means of teaching in 
order that the pupil might the more easily remember all 
the peculiarities of the Tones and other delicacies of a 
manner of rendering the Chant that had to be taught 
orally. But this private method attained no great popu- 
larity and was soon outstripped in its fitness for fixing 
the intervals by Guido's invention of the stave. The old 
teachers relied for the method of singing the neumes 
principally on oral tradition. They committed very little 
to writing and that little by no means clear or deter- 

*) These signs [expression marks] however are of comparatively 
recent origin, and became desirable and even necessary according as 
Instrumental Music, which of itself is music without words, — a sort 
of playing with sounds, came into use in the 17 th century. Neither 
Palestkina nor the vocal composers before and after him, nor 
G. Fkiedeich Handel nor Seb. Bach, — the latter two at least not 
to the same extent as was done at a later period, — relied on these 
signs as a principal means of expressing their ideas. 


mined. They all however unanimously proclaim, that, 
"the note may serve to guide the intelligence, it cannot 
create it. The mind when it employs words to express 
its thoughts communicates to them with the breath of 
the thought itself the desired expression .... He who 
does not understand a language will endeavour with more 
or less success to imitate him who does understand it; 
but if in order to attain this result, signs of accentuation, 
punctuation or notation may be found useful, we must 
still recognise that of themselves they are insufficient and 
may prove an obstruction. The error consists in expecting 
from them the whole secret of good pronunciation, and in 
concentrating the attention on these signs, so that the very 
precautions taken to ensure a good result, oftentimes be- 
come by their exaggeration the cause of ill-success." *) 

Through the development and dissemination of mea- 
sured music in the course of the centuries following the 
year one Thousand, the notes or note-forms came to be 
used to signify yet another thing, namely, the duration 
of the sounds they represented. The punctum and virga 
never had been employed in the earlier periods to indi- 
cate the duration or time-value of the sounds, but as 
measured music in its commencements also employed 
the same note -forms as were used in Plain-Chant, viz., 
^, m, ♦, it soon became the custom in Plain-Chant itself 
to sing all the Vir gee and Puncta, which then had the 
formst, and *, with equal length and ponderousness, and 
hence came the canto martellato style. Against this prac- 
tice some voices were raised even in the 15 th century, 
advocating the relative value of the notes as against 
the absolute value given them by the mensural theory. 
I refer to the remark of Peter Talhanderius (see above, 
page 34) who would only employ the square stemmed 
note 1, over accented syllables and in the clivis. Gui- 
detti 2 ) sought to fix the varying length of syllables by 
a new method. He introduced the diamond or lozenge- 

*) D. Pothiek, Les Melodies Gregoriennes, p. 4. 

2 ) He writes in the Annotationes ad Cantum Passionis, Romce, apud 
Alex. Gardanum 1586: "Quoniani nonnullis quantum ad notas attinet, 
hie canendi modus fortasse novus videbitur, sciendum, quod hsec 
nota ♦ hanc vim habet, ut syllabam brevem esse iudicet, ac in pro- 
nuntiatione eelerius excurrendum." 


shaped note, ♦ for short syllables, and instead of the 
strophicus he dotted down two or three notes bound by 
a circumflex or tie, but as to the manner of singing them 
he added: "ita proferatur, ac si triplici vocali scriberetur, 
sed cum decore et gratia, quce hie doceri non potest;" 
i. e. "one must double or triplicate the vowel yet with 
a certain dignity and grace which cannot be conveyed in 
any written instruction". He also found, especially in , 
the use of the diamond note many imitators down to 
our own time, though there is always danger that the 
syllable immediately preceding the diamond note will be 
delivered too loudly, and the note itself in a hopping, 
dancing manner. The Editio Mediccea published in 1614 
had already laid aside this use. 

Now that the official Choral books, which the present 
Manual follows in reading and form of notation, are fully 
published in typical editions, it seems convenient, partly, 
in order to avoid misapprehensions about the notation, 
partly in order to bring about a well-ordered and uni- 
form rendering of the Chant, to formulate and illustrate 
by examples the following rules based on principles of 
tradition, of music, aesthetics and language. Their ob- 
servance presents no particular difficulty in the syllabic 
and simple chants; for the more elaborate neumatised 
chants they are more important, as only the right group- 
ing of prolonged series of neumes makes it possible for 
the rendering to be effective, and in accordance with 
the rules of rhythm, melody and language. Finally, it 
may be hoped that these Rules will solve some of the 
objections which are still made in certain quarters against 
the authorised chants, and prove practically that in these 
abbreviated forms of the melodies the essence of the 
Gregorian Chant has been preserved. 

All Rules must be based on this first principle: 
"Sing as you speak". 

1) If monosyllables are to be sung to single notes, 
they are noted thus: a. Their duration is regulated ex- 


actly by the vowel. According to the rules of Quantity, 
all monosyllables ending in a vowel are long, also [mono- 
syllabic] substantives ending in a consonant, except cor, 
fei, mel, vir and os. Monosyllables which are not sub- 
stantives ending in a consonant are short, as, üt, nee, 
an, sed, quöt, in, äd, etc. Except nön, sin, eras, 
cur, par and the adverbs on ic and uc\ — sic, hie, hue, 
and his, quös, quäs, höc, häc. 

In singing however it is not the metrical quantity 
of the syllables but the accent which is of importance. 
The latter is of two kinds, the long accent (circumflexus) 
and the short or sharp accent (acutus). 1 ) Consequently 
the rule just given must be modified as follows: a) mono- 
syllables having a naturally long vowel take the circum- 
flex, as mos, flös, jus, lux, spes; b) monosyllables with 
a short vowel or having a vowel only by position 2 ) are 
sung with the acute accent; c) prepositions are unaccented 
when they stand before the words governed by them, for 
instance post te, in me, etc. From these rules for pro- 
nouncing monosyllables it follows that one and the same 
note-form ■ which stands in the official books indiscrimi- 
nately over such words as, de, te, sed, pax, spes, lux, 
must be sung with various modifications of accent. 

2) In a similar way words of two or more syllables 
receive an ever-varying amount of emphasis according 
to their different position and importance in the phrase 

x ) In the examples which foUow the natural length of a vowel is 
indicated by ~ , the accentus acutus by ', the circumflexus by ", and the 
short vowels by w ; unaccented syllables bear no mark. 

2 ) Position occurs, 1) when a syllable ends with two or three 
consonants, as est, mens; 2) when the first syllable ends with a con- 
sonant and the next begins with one, as \l-le, är-ma, pär-tus; 3) when 
the first syllable ends with a vowel and the second begins with two 
consonants, as, ä-ptus, etc. When a liquid (I, m, n, r) follows a mute 
(all other consonants except s, x, z), the syllable becomes anceps 
[doubtful]; in prose it is usually pronounced short in words of three 
or more syllables, as, in-te-grum. 

Magister Choralis. 10 


qy sentence, although they have in syllabic chant the 
same note-form ^ for all accented syllables and ■ for 
other syllables. 

It is therefore wrong to give an always uniform em- 
phasis to words like Dominus or meo, because the o or e 
happen to be accented, nor would it be right for instance 
to sing thus; U m terra. päx liomlmb^s bönce voluntatis; 
better thus; — et in terra päx höniimbüs bonce voluntatis. 1 ) 

3) When there are two notes to one syllable the 
combination is either % (clivis), or w « and / (podatus) 
(see chap. 7 th , p. 34). Clivis, also called flexa, is a com- 
bination of the acute and grave accents. In the case of 
accented syllables the first note is sounded more strongly 
than the second, while the weight of the whole group 
changes according to the importance of the correspond- 
ing word. On unaccented syllables or words both notes 
are sung equally light, though distinct. If we had for 
instance a melody like this; 

sed li - be - ra nos , 

the rendering should be: 


sed li - be - ra nos 

The podatus is the flexa inverted. In the official 
books the higher note is printed over accented syllables 
thus >|. It must not be accented in a stereotyped cast- 
iron manner but only receive an additional stress of the 
voice when a larger interval such as a third, fourth or 
fifth follows. Should the note immediately following be 
on the same degree or only a tone or semitone lower 

*) The syUables marked with " are to be prolonged and sung as 
it were decrescendo. 


then the stress is equally divided over the two notes of 
the podatus; similarly on unaccented syllables. When 
the note following is higher, then the emphasis is best 
placed on the first note. Should we have for instance 
to sing this melody: 

sed li - be - ra nos , 
let it be sung thus: 

sed li - be - ra nos , 
or in the following case: 


-g-j oy -gs^- 

sed li-be-ra nos sed li - be-ra nos etc. 

In these cases therefore ^iz^ =:|p=3 l zj!z^z^ _ M _^^- 

the second note is to be considered liquescent, smoothly 
flowing and not as if accented. 

4) A combination of three notes on one syllable is 
either a) torculus (rffc, ^), where the second note is 
higher than the first and third; in this case the stress 
of the voice is equally distributed over the three notes, 
and the higher note should not be accented or, b) scan- 
dims (***, also *Hl), where the third note is the highest; 
the same rules hold for it as for the podatus; or c) por- 
rectus (fy* also pyQ, where the second note is lower than 
the first and third; this is to be regarded as a combi- 
nation of clivis and podatus and to be rendered accord- 
ingly; or d) dimacus (fl^, also *^), which must be con- 
sidered as similar to the flexa, On accented syllables it 
gets a light emphasis on the first note, on unaccented 
and final syllables it is to be sung with a slight decrescendo. 



5) All more complicated combinations of notes can 
be reduced to these formulas and are to be rendered 
according «to the rules just given, but always as con- 
nectedly as possible, unless where breathing marks or 
spaces indicate a slight pause. The greatest care must 
be taken to avoid any postling or blundering. 1 ) 

Too much stress on the principal note of the group 
gives the singing a character of affectation, too little 
accent deprives it of the natural strength and rhythm 2 ) 
of the language and fatigues the voice by inducing a 
dragging and monotonous drawling style. Moreover the 
pace and character of the Chant, and the power of voice 
at one's disposal are of great importance in determining 
what amount of impulse should be given to the highest 
note. Also great care must be taken that by a varied and 
well-balanced proportion of the principal accents a natural 
and dignified symmetry of the whole melody be secured. 
Good accentuation and a certain solemnity and devout 
unction 3 ) in the singing can replace a good deal of voice 
power and considerably intensify the effect of the words. 

But the most important factor of all is naturalness 
which impresses on the rendering of the liturgical word 
and tone a character of pious modesty and combines both 
in expressive unity. 

x ~) In the Bull "Docta Sanctorum" Pope John XXII complains that 
the notarum ascensiones pudicce descensionesque temperatce" get confused 
(offuscantur)) "currunt enim et non quiescunt, (get huddled together) 
aures inebriant et non medentur." 

2 ) As to the combinations of Tor cuius with Porrectus, Climacus or 
Scandicus, we may point to an analogy in the English language. In 
compound words the accentuation not essentially but considerably 
differs from what it is in the simple words by themselves, as; field, 
officer, — field-officer; evening, prayer, — evening-prayer, etc. 

3 ) In connection with that musical judgment innate in man which 
Cicero describes, as "aurium quoddam admirabile judicium, quo indi- 
cantur in vocis cantibus varietas sonorum, intervalla, distinctio et vocis 
genera multa." It is therefore a bad mannerism to hurry ascending 
notes, and rush down descending figures and thus cause in the listener 
a sense of Giddiness. 


6) "In order that the text he understood, the ear 
should be able to distinguish the words from one another, 
and not only the words, but the phrases and sentences. 
This effect can only be secured by a correct method of 
pronouncing the final syllables of words, phrases and sen- 
tences. Clearly there must not be too close connection 
-between the final syllable of one word and the opening 
syllable of the next, and this is a rule observed in de- 
clamation where between the different words there is a 
scarce perceptible pause, the tempus latens of Quintilian, 
which being added to the final syllable makes it long". 1 ) 

7) "Attention to a good accentuation of the second 
or third last syllable must never lead to the suppression 
of that which follows it. The distinction of the words 
which we advocate is not a separation. It would be 
ridiculous to pause after each word in order that they 
might be easily distinguished. Nor in considering the 
final syllables of words as long, do we approve of the 
custom of some singers to enforce it, as if it ever could 
receive an accent." 

8) "As a rule the meaning of the words also indicates 
the places where the voice may rest when singing. 2 ) In 
saying that the last note is to be prolonged, it is not im- 
plied that the preceding notes may not be prolonged also 
(and at the same time); it is indeed natural enough to pre- 
pare the rest which has to take place on the final note, 
by a gradual slackening of the pace on those preceding." 

x ) These excellent principles (N os 6 to 9) are taken from Dom 
Pothiek's "Melodies Gregoriennes". The Chapters on Duration and 
Strength of the Sounds, Signs and Execution of the Groups of Notes, 
Pronunciation of Latin, connecting- the syllables of one word in > sing- 
ing, Divisions in Eeading and Singing, (Chapters 7—10) of this va- 
luable book afford a great deal of information and instruction for the 
correct rendering of the authentic Gregorian Chant. 

2 ) "Moderator es cJiori, qui cJioro didasculi vocari solent constituünt 
pausatores, qui signo aliquo pausas faciant, vel indicent, versusque prce- 
cipitantes cohibeant." Bonaetius, de horis Canon. L. III. c. XX. 


9) "The group of notes connected in the notation 
must also be connected in the execution. If the groups 
are separated in the notation by a space, they should 
also be distinguished in the execution by a ritardando 
of the voice at the end of each group , and if necessary 
by a respiration. Only at the end of clauses the rest 
should be complete and an interval of silence becomes 
necessary. The closing notes must die away softly." 

CHAPTER 46 th . 

I. The Poetry of the Psalms is most simple yet most 
sublime; the loftiest sentiments are conveyed in concise 
forms of words, but every word is pregnant with meaning 
and capable of receiving the most varied expression. It 
would not be easy to find more suitable melodies where- 
with to invest those words, than the eight Gregorian 
Tones with their various endings prescribed by the Church. 
Sometimes indeed when we hear Vespers sung, we realize 
the truth of Mendelssohn's words: "You cannot conceive 
how tiresome and monotonous the effect is, and how harshly 
and mechanically they chant through the Psalms, They 
sing with the accent of a number of men quarrelling vio- 
lently, and it sounds as if they were shouting out furiously 
one against another" (Letters from Italy etc. page 169.) 
But this method of chanting we need hardly say, is 
against the spirit and the wish of the Church, and should 
be attributed to inattention, ignorance of the language, 
carelessness in pronunciation, imperfect training or de- 
plorable indifference and indevotion. "The voice of the 
Psalmist should not be harsh or untuneful, but clear, 
sweet and true; Tone and Melody should correspond to 
the sacredness of the service, and in the modulation of 
the voice, christian simplicity, and not the art of the 


theatre, should prevail." *) Would that every man, whose 
duty it is to sing Psalms, repeated to himself with the 
Royal Psalmist: "I will sing praise to Thee in the sight 
of Thy angels" 2 ) and considered as adressed to himself 
alone, those words, Psallite sapienter; then indeed the 
many eulogiums lavished by the Holy Fathers and the 
Church on the Psalm- Chants would appear reasonable 
and just, and the counsel of St. James the Apostle come 
to be understood: "Is any one of you sad? let him pray. 
Is he cheerful in mind? let him sing?' (James, cap. V. v. 13.) 

The Initium must always be solemn and slow, the 
mediatio distinct, with the syllables judiciously distributed 
amongst the several notes of the inflection; in the Finalis 
the accented syllable should receive greater power and 
duration of tone, and all should be careful not to do 
violence to the text, or unduly prolong the final syllables. 

Good chanting is in truth an art in itself, and can- 
not be acquired all in a moment. Industrious practice, 
constant attention to the rules of the language, and an 
earnest spirit of harmonious cooperation on the part of 
the choristers are indispensable requisites. To chant the 
Psalms well, preparation is necessary in order to foresee 
and overcome its difficulties beforehand, and avoid un- 
becomingness in the House of God. The Recitation should 
be dignified and easy, neither hurried nor drawling, and 
with strict attention to the rules of the language, accen- 
tuation etc. Adam of Fulda remarks "that between the 
accent of Prose -speech and Psalm -singing it is well 
known that there is no slight resemblance". 

In festis solemnihus et duplicibus two Chanters in- 
tone the first verse; in festis semidupl. and others of 
lower rank, only one Chanter. The remaining verses 

*) Isidoee of Seville, de eccl. offic. 
2 ) Psalm 137, v. 1. 


of the Psalm are sung, by alternate sides of the Choir, 
but without the Initium. The words in each verse 
should be carefully and distinctly enunciated. One side 
of the choir should not begin a verse until the previous 
verse has been concluded by the other; and a per- 
ceptible pause should be made at the asterisk in the 
middle of the verse, so that all may begin the second 
portion together. If half of the verse, whether before or 
after the asterisk, be very long, then it is the duty of 
the choir-master to indicate one or more breathing places, 
so that all the words may be sung evenly and together. 
All the verses of a Psalm may be accompanied by the 
Organ. The same rules hold for the Canticles (Magnificat 
and Benedictus); except that in these the words are sung 
more solemnly and slowly (tractius), and the Initium is 
employed with each verse. 

II. The manner of chanting the Prayers, Lessons, 
Gospels &c. according to the Eoman Kite, may be classed 
amongst the most effective arrangements of Gregorian 
Chant, because of its extreme simplicity, suitability and 
variety. Old theoreticians styled this manner of chanting 
choraliter legere, or choral reading, and in their several 
treatises give special directions for the correct rhythmical 
rendering of the same. The notes are so few 1 ) and the 
inflections so simple that they do not call for much at- 
tention; but it is of the utmost importance that the pro- 
nunciation, expression and rhythmical declamation of the 
text should be carefully practised. The ring of the voice 
will be different on Festive Days, from what it should 
be in Masses of the Dead and Days of Penance. In pro- 

*) "De sequalibus quidem vocibus nihil aliud dicendum, nisi quod 
communis vocis impetu proferantur, in modum soluta oratione legen- 
tis." Script. T. I. p. 104. Accentu regulantur qusecumque simplici 
littera hoc est sine nota, describuntur, ut sunt Lectiones, &c. (Mar- 
tyrolog. Usuardi ed. 1490 ad calcem.) 


fane music there is an axiom: "Recitative is the real 
test of a good singer;' 1 in like manner choral reading, 
which so closely resembles recitative, demands great 
earnestness and distinctness. Heavy cumbersome chant- 
ing, unseemly jerking of the words, an affected tone of 
voice, nasal effects, long drawling of final syllables and 
little grace notes and unauthorised flourishes, omissions 
of words or too quick reading of them, resulting in a 
very faulty and indistinct rendering of the sonorous Latin 
language, are all evils to be avoided. 

Should the Choir have to answer a Responsorium, 
the Organ when allowed should sustain with good sono- 
rous stops, the strong but no shouting voices of the 

In the simple Chant of the Psalms, or of the Text 
of the Ordinarium Missce, etc. to each syllable there is 
for the most part but one note, seldom more than two 
or three. For this reason this method of Choral Chant, 
if we exclude the accentus which appartains to the Cele- 
brant or Sacred Ministers, is justly esteemed the spe- 
cially popular chant for the Masses; and in countries 
where the Latin language is fairly understood, as in Italy 
and Spain, the Hymns, Psalms, Litanies, Sequences &c. 
are to the present day sung with wonderful eifect by 
the congregation. 1 ) 

CHAPTER 47 th . 


1) When the suppliant hears the voice of God through 
the mouth of the Church, the desire for praise and sacri- 
fice wells up in his heart, and finds expression in the 
form of a Hymn. Joyfully and hopefully the soul is lifted 

l ) Augustinus Confess. Lib. X. writes "Primitiva ecclesia ita psallebat, 
ut modico flexu vocis faceret resonare psallentem, ita ut pronuntianti 
vicinior esset quam canenti." 


up to solemnise and ennoble in holy love the office of 
the Day." x ) 

Through measured speech the feelings of the faithful 
are more easily and more persistently aroused; there is 
created at one and the same time an agreeable alter- 
nation in the variety of the rhythm, and in the regular 
though peculiar melodic form of the Hymn adapted to 
the sustained swing of the poetic measure. 

2) Eemembering what has been already said in this 
Manual (Chap. 8 th ), here again we must observe the great 
difference that exists between Bhythm and Metre. Even 
in ordinary conversation there is a raising and lowering 
of the voice or in other words we speak rhythmically; 
when we bring back to the ear this rise and fall at fixed 
intervals and at fixed points we speak in metre. 

The metrical accent is quite independent of the verbal 
accent; but in singing we must be careful to bring the 
accent of the word in unison with the metrical accent; 
in other words to allow the metrical accent to be heard 
without overpowering the verbal accent. 

3) Latin words are made up of long and short syl- 
lables; the time necessary for pronouncing the latter is 
styled mora, hence a long syllable requires about two 
moras. From the setting together of syllables of fixed 
length or brevity (quantity) arise the two-, four- or five- 
syllable poetic feet (pedes). 2 ) A foot in versification can- 
not contain less than four moras (metrum), eight moras 
(i. e. two metra) at least are required to form a verse, 
and at least two verses to constitute a strophe» 

*) Ambeegee, Pastoraltheologie, Vol. 2, p. 440. 

2 ) The principal two and three syllable poetic feet are called: 

~~ pyrrhichius, -- spondeus, ~ - jambus, -~ trochceus or choreus, ww ~ 
tribrachis, - — molossus, - ~ w dactylus, ~-~ amphibrachis , - ~ - 
anapcestus, >-'-/- bacclilus, - ~ - amphimaker or creticus, - - ~ palim- 
bacchms or antibacchius. ^ 


The metrical hymns of the Breviary are set prin- 
cipally in the following four metres: 

a) Iambic in four or poetic feet 1 ) or six, 2 ) each 
strophe containing four or five verses. 

b) Trochaic in which each strophe consists of six 
verses. The 1 st , 3 d and 5 th verses have four feet, the 
2 nd , 4 th and 6 th only three and a half. 3 ) In the Hymn 
Stabat mater there are two verses with four feet, and 
one with three and a half; moreover the first and second 
verses are in rhyme. In the Hymn Ave maris Stella the 
strophe consists of four verses each of three trochaic feet 

c) Sapphic and Adonic, with three verses to eleven 
syllables, 4 ) to which as a fourth verse the so-called adonic 
verse with five syllables is annexed. 

d) Asclepiadic and glyconic with twelve syllables in 
three verses; the fourth verse (glyconic) of eight syllables 
being added on. 5 ) 

OBSERVATION. In the liturgical Text of the Gra- 
duate and Antiphonarium we sometimes meet with Distichs, 
e. g. Hie vir despiciens, and magnum pietatis opus, the 
J. Virgo Dei Genitrix with the 1$. In tua se clausit, the 
Gloria laus of Palm -Sunday and the like, where the 
melodies are set in ordinary Choral rhythm, so that in 
singing they are treated as Prose. Similarly we meet 
Texts of pure hexameter, such as the Anthem of the 

1 ) E. Gr. "Jam, lucis orto sidere", "Nunc sancte nobis Spiritus", "Rector 
potens verax Deus", "Herum Deus tenax vigor", "Te lucis ante terminum ,T , 
"Jam sol recedit igneus", "Jesu coronaVirginum", "jEterna Christi munera" etc. 

2 ) E. Gr. Beate Pastor Petre, clemens accipe or Egregie Doctor Paule r 
mores instrue or Decora lux ceternitatis auream. 

3 ) E. Gr. Lustra \ sex qui \ jam per- \ egit \ Tempus | implens | corpo- \ 
ris etc., or Pange lingua gloriosi, or Ira justi Conditoris etc. 

4 ) E. Gr. Iste confessor, TJt queant laxis, Scepe dum Christe populus. 
Jam faces lictor ferat etc. 

5 ) E. G. Te Joseph celebrent, Custodes hominum, Sanctorum meritis. 
In the last verse of this Hymn there are but seven instead of eight 
syllables, and it is therefore called pherecratian. A union of three 
metres (first two verses asclepiadic, third verse pherecratian, fourth 
glyconic) is found in the Hymns Regali soUo, Nullis te genitor. 


B. V. M., Alma Eedemptoris Mater, the Introit Salve 
Sancta Parens, the Antiphon Solve jubente Deo, and to 
which melodies in no sense metrical are adapted. 

4) All Hymns, where the melodies are mostly syl- 
labic, and only in rare instances marked with two or 
three notes to a syllable, and composed to express the 
verse-measure, should be sung in a flowing rhythm with 
due attention to the metrical and verbal accent. Fre- 
quently too the manner of singing the melody in the 
first verse may not be available for the second. 

In the earlier editions of the Choral Books, selecting 
the note forms (^ H ♦) regard was had only to the strophe 
which stood immediately under the notes; but in the 
more recent editions (manuals and stereotyped) those 
notes which in the second or third strophe should be 
sung long or short according to the accent, were printed 
with a ■, discarding the use of the ♦ and leaving the t\ 
in those places, where the accent requires it in all the 
strophes. Thus for example in the Hymn Deus tuorum 
militum the first strophe would have the following rhythm; 


De - us tu - 6 - rum mi - li - tum sors, et co - rö - na, etc. 

the 2. Hie nempe mim-di gäudi - a et blanda fraudum etc. 

the 3. Poe-nas cu - cur-rit for - ti - ter , et süs-tu - lit etc. 

and similarly the remaining strophes. In the most recent 
typical editions each strophe with its own melody is given 
in extenso, and according to the variations of the Text 
the melody repeated with the prescribed note Forms M or *(. 

5) To remove the hiatus (see Chap. 11 th ) and not 
break the order of the poetic measure, the closing vowel 
of one word when the following word begins with a vowel 
may according to the rules of poetry be elided. But in 



the singing of the Hymns it is recommended to sing 
distinctly all the syllables where elision might occur, and 
to sing them to the note of the preceding syllable; e. g. 

In the Hymn 

Jesu Medemptor: 

In the Hymn 

Crudelis Herodes. 

In the Hymn 

Veni Creator: 

In the Hymn 

Decora lux: 







crata ab etc. 





ri - gi - nem etc. 


teque u - tri - üs - que etc. 

* P" *— (♦) *— "*1 ftr 


re - isque *) in a - stra etc. 

In the Hymn 


so - la ma - gnarum ur-bi - urn etc. 2 ) 

By a skilful and quick delivery no interruption of 
the metre will be noticeable in these instances; however 
to avoid confusion the Director should in the rehearsals 
especially of the newer hymns with frequent elisions 
frequently exercise the singers beforehand and mark the 
places where they occur. 

x ) Where two notes come on one syllable, as in this example, in 
the Hymn Egregie Doctor, in universa cetemitatis and the like, the 
note grouping should not be divided over the two syllables. In the 
third verse of the sixth strophe of the Hymn A soils ortus cardine the 
scansion should be as follows: Et la \ cte modi \ co.ya \ stus est; there- 
fore the syllable di in modico should be thus provided for: 




et la - cte mo - di - co pa-stus est. 

2 ) In the typical editions the tie or bind, as sacrata^ab is omitted,, 
as it might easily lead to the omission of the syllable or to its being: 
sung with the following syllable. 


CHAPTER 48 th . 

I. To the class of unmetrical hymns belong chiefly 
the Gloria and Te Deum. The Gloria should be sung 
right through, from the intonation of the Priest *) to the 
end, without prelude or interlude. The several phrases 
may be sung, a) alternately by two sides of the choir, 
or, b) by the chanters and the entire choir, or c) in 
divided choirs for some phrases and all united at some 
others; the division of the choir being so arranged as 
to give a Tenor and Bass for Chanters, or Soprano and 
Alto, or Soprano, Alto, Tenor and Bass as a Quartett, 
and then the entire choir. Where the point of changing 
from one side to another occurs, this should be expressly 
indicated before hand. If, for example, the alternation 
is between upper and lower voices, this should be main- 
tained all through, until the last phrase is reached at 
the words Cum Sancto Spiritu, when both sides should 

"The Te Deum" according to Baini "may be sung 
"in two ways: either alternately by the Chanters and 
"full choir, or alternately by the Chanters and Congre- 
gation, — or choir against choir." The same method 
in a word, may be adopted as in the case of the Gloria. 
At the words: Pleni sunt codi and Te ergo qucesumus, 
the divided choirs unite and sing the former phrase 
fortissimo ; the latter softly, slowly and with great ex- 
pression. At the closing words: In te Domine all unite 
again, and bring this solemn Hymn of Praise and thanks- 
giving to an end, as if with one heart and voice. The 

*) "After the ravishing, seraphic, vocal interweaving of a Pale- 
strina Kyrie, the simple Gloria in excelsis Deo, escapes from the mouth 
of the Celebrant with a tone of majestic grandeur and jubilation, 
worthy of proclaiming the glory of the Most High." Ambkos, Ge- 
schichte der Musik, II. vol. p. 68. 


interpolation of four or five part music in every alternate 
verse of the Te Deum is one of the oldest customs: in 
the Church. 

II. The solemn intonation of the Credo by the Cele- 
brant is followed immediately by the remaining words of 
this great Act of Faith, which may be sung by all to- 
gether or alternately; as in the case of the Gloria but 
no word should be omitted nor should the Organ inter- 
pose interludes. The melody is peculiarly suitable for 
a united congregational rendering by all who take part 
even in the most crowded religious solemnity. If it be 
sung without accompaniment, then it should be accele- 
rated a little; we prefer a swinging, well-accented, un- 
accompanied rendering of the Credo, to the best and 
cleverest Organ-accompaniment. 

III. The Preface is introduced by an antiphonal chant 
between Priest and Choir. 1 ) Dr. Dom. Mettenleiter in 
his Aphorisms on Gregorian Chant, 2 ) says with regard 
to the Preface and Pater noster: "The Chants of the 
Prcefatio and Pater noster are the most sublime that 
have ever been or can be produced. A thousand times 
have we both sung them and heard them sung; and if 
we live to hear them a thousand times more, we will 
never grow the last tired of them; on the contrary, at 
each hearing, we catch something previously unheard, 
we discover a new beauty, the feeling of God's presence 
strikes us more forcibly, the breathings of the Holy Spirit 
become more and more distinctly audible . . . and yet but 
four notes are employed te produce all these effects." 

The Choir should answer the Priest in just intonation 
and in a firm united body of tone expressive of both text 

1 ) Of M. A. Mozakt it is authentically related that speaking of 
this Chant he said, "He would give all his musical reputation to be 
accounted the originator of this one melody." 

2 ) In Pastor bonus, a supplement to a Swiss Art journal. 10. Aug. 1861. 


and melody. The Organ may accompany the responses, 
but not the Chant of the Priest. 

Equally beautiful if not still richer forms of melody 
are given to that incomparable song of triumph the Ex- 
sultet jam Angelica of Holy Saturday; "as joyous yet as 
dignified a piece of declamatory music, if I may so speak, 
as is anywhere to be found." 1 ) 

IV. The Litanies are especially suited for large 
choirs, or congregational singing. One or more Chanters 
distinctly and carefully sing the invocations, to each of 
which the Choir or Congregation answer. The Responses 
in the Mass or during the divine Office follow the same 
rules of clear united intonation, distinct enunciation and 
well modulated delivery. All efforts to deliver these rich 
melodies effectively will be fruitless if the syllabic simple 
Chant be not perfectly and correctly learned. 

CHAPTER 49 th . 


I. "The Introit always expresses an idea which in 
the solemn Celebration of Mass should for the moment 
prevail and engage our attention, — it strikes the key- 
note of the Festival, or exhibits a model after which we 
should draw. Whence comes it that in earlier times that 
the Latin Chant of the Introits was so well understood, 
that the Sundays in Civil Almanacks were always indi- 
cated with their initial word: Gaudete, Invocabit, Oculi, 
Lcetare? Clearly in those times men took more interest 
in the Church's prayers and were more closely in touch 
with them than what they are in our days." 2 ) 

*) Caed. Wiseman "Four Lectures on the Ceremonies of Holy Week" 
page 70. 

2 ) Dr. Jos. Selost, der lat. Kirchengesang beim heil. Messopfer. 
2 nd edit. pp. 245 & 247. 


The melodies of the Introits are simple, somewhat 
like those of the Antiphons; formerly an entire Psalm with 
Gloria Patri was sung after the Introit, and then like 
as with an Antiphon, the Introit was repeated. Now but 
one verse of the Psalm with the Gloria Patri is sung. 
The Ecclesiastical Decree commanding the repetition of 
the Introit can be complied with by reciting the words 
on one note, when the use of the Organ is allowed. 

The Choral Chants for the Kyrie, Christe, Kyrie, 
are much more elaborate. It lies with the Organist to 
so transpose either the Introit or the Kyrie that without 
a long interlude both Chants mostly in different modes 
may be as closely as possible bound together. The 
Dominants a flat, a or b flat can bring about this union 
without much modulating; e. g. the Introit Judica on 
Passion Sunday is in the 4 th Mode and closes with e, g, 
f, e, the Kyrie for the same Sunday (N° 12) is in the 
6 th Mode and begins with /; 4 th and 6 th Modes have a 
for the Dominant, consequently no transposition is neces- 
sary. Again in the Introit, Salve, Sancta Parens (II Modus) 
the melody closes on d, the Kyrie de B. V. M. is I. and 
II. Modes; transpose both Introit and Kyrie a minor 
third higher with 3 flats, and aflat becomes the common 
Dominant. The compass of the nine Kyrie and Christe 
melodies (from A to d) demands in all cases alternation 
between high (1 st and 3 d Christe, 7 th and 9 th Kyrie) and 
low voices (2 nd and 8 th Kyrie and 2 nd Christe) so that 
only the 1 st and 3 d Kyrie could be sung by the united 
choir. The Introit Loquebar (V. Modus) preceding the 
Kyrie in Duplicibus must be transposed a minor third 
down so that a will become Dominant instead of c; and 
to / sharp, e, d, e, e, d follow immediately a, g, a, c, of 
the first Kyrie (I. Mod. with Dominant a). If however 
the repetition is recited, the Organist can in the accom- 

Magister Choralis. 1 / 


paniment of the a, soften the somewhat too rigged me- 
lodic modulation in the following manner and establish 
a connection with the Kyrie. 

Loquebar etc — quae di - le - xi ni-mis. 

\ \ 6 \ 4 \ 3 

II. For the Chants of the Gradual with Alleluja or 
Tr actus which of all the Chants of the Mass contain the 
most prolonged melismce, use can be made of the per- 
mission to recite the more prolonged chants especially 
in Churches where Deacon and Subdeacon cannot be had 
and where but a short interval occurs between Epistle 
and Gospel. If the first verse of the Gradual and the 
Alleluia be sung then let the second verse and the f. 
of the Alleluia be recited, and thus complaints cannot 
be made of undue prolongation of Divine Service in 
obedience to Ecclesiastical Decrees, regard being had 
to the meaning which this portion of the Mass had in 
the oldest liturgies and still has in our own day. 1 ) It 
may be sufficient for impatient souls to refer to the ad- 
monition of S 1 Bonaventure: "The faithful should stand 
firm to the commandments which are proclaimed to them 
and advance step by step." 2 ) The same Holy Doctor 
adds: "After the Alleluia we are accustomed by a long 
intonation on the vowel a to prolong the Chant, in order 
to signify the endless and unspeakable joy of the Saints 
in heaven." 

1 ) Kössing in his "Kirchenlexikon", article Graduate, (2 nd edition, 
5 th vol. p. 983) appropriately remarks: "the meaning of the Graduate 
falls in with that of the Alleluia Chant, the Tract and the Sequence, 
and is to he found in the necessary alternation between the action 
of the clergy and of the faithful and not in the necessity of filling 
in the time whilst preparation is being made for the solemn publi- 
cation of the Gospel." 

2 ) Expos. Missce cap. II. opp. toni VII. p. 74. 


Of the Tract Pope Innocent III. writes: 1 ) "This should 
be sung in a slow long drawn out manner (hence its 
name 2 )) which also indicates the miseries of our present 
pilgrimage, of which the Psalmist says: Wo is me that 
my sojourning is prolonged, etc. 

In uniting the Gradual with the Alleluia or Tract, 
let the same directions be observed as were given in 
reference with the Introit and Kyrie. 

III. "The Offertorium has received this name because 
it was sung whilst the Bishop or Priest was engaged in 
collecting the oblations for the sacrifice from Clergy and 
people. The Chant should continue whilst the offerings 
were being made so that it often became necessary to 
repeat it." From a musical aspect this Chant was in 
earlier times very elaborate and prolonged, (pneumis 
distentum says Rupert v. Deutz) in the authentic Choral 
Books it draws nearer to the Antiphon Chant and is 
shorter and more compact. Its omission or substitution 
by a Text foreign to the Character of the Festival can- 
not be justified. Even when an occasional motet in music 
may be sung after the Offertory the delivery of the Offer- 
tory in the Plain-Chant melody is to be preferred to its 

IV. The Communio after the Agnus Bei is at the 
present day nothing more than an Antiphon which in 
earlier times was sung in conjunction with a Psalm 
(see page 134). 

"The solemn Chant is a kind of thanksgiving which 
if not always expressed in words, is nevertheless such 

*) Von den Geheimnissen der hl. Messe, translated [into German] by 
Fr. Hurter. 

a ) The Pope here does not mean to describe the manner of ren- 
dering this Chant, bnt only the construction of the melody which 
in the verses of the Tract from three to fourteen in number, is of a 
richer and more prolonged character. 



in intention, in the affections of the Heart from which 
the Chant springs, and to the greater honor of God which 
it promotes." 

Also between the Agnus Dei and Communio there 
should be a uniformity of tone, which can be attained 
by a skilful Organ interlude permissible here without 
danger of loss of time or inconvenience to the Celebrant. 
In Advent and Lent when the Organ is silent, a longer 
pause may be made between Agnus and Communio, 
wherein the intonation of the latter may be prepared. 

V. The Antiphons, which, sometimes without a Psalm 
to follow, and sometimes as an introduction and close to 
a Psalnx, constitute such a principal feature of the Bre- 
viary (Antiphonarium), and are frequently to be met with 
in the Graduate, Rituale, and Pontificate Romanum, range 
themselves as a kind of preparation for the more copiously 
noted Choral Chants. In their melodies they hold a kind 
of via media between the syllabic Chants of the Psalms, 
Prefaces, Lessons, Hymns, Glorias and Credos, and the 
more elaborate alternating Chants of the Mass, etc. The 
office of the Antiphon usually consists in giving the key- 
note or leading idea which the Church wishes to develop 
for the Feast occurring from the Psalm which follows, 
and they give at once the "headings" and the chief 
point of meditation which should be remembered during 
the Psalm. Through this alternation of the antiphonal 
Chants the Office assumes a kind of dramatic character. 

A closer union of several consecutive Antiphons in 
different modes requires a careful preparation on the 
part of the Organist or Director. 

Truly the simple speech-melody of the Antiphons 
bound so naturally to the words and phrases of the Text 
must be the reason why the various editions of the Choral 
books for Antiphon Chants exhibit for centuries the most 


welcome uniformity. From the earnest cultivation of 
Antiphon Chants preeminently depends the growing pro- 
gress and successful advancement of Gregorian Chant. 
By this means a good tradition worthy of imitation can 
be established. 

VI. The name Responsorium is principally given now 
to those Chants of extensive compass, which are pre- 
scribed to be sung after the Lessons in the Office of 
Matins, similar to the Gradual and Tract verses after the 
Epistle, or after Lessons in the Missal Liturgy, which 
anciently were also designated as Responsoria. *) 

In the Roman official books (AntipJionarium in folio) 
all the Responsories of Matins according to the order 
of the Breviary are printed in full, for the first time for 
centuries past. As basis for this work the printed Folio 
Antiphonary of Trognseus in Antwerp 1611, was mostly 
used; the complete Responsories given in that edition 
were abbreviated by the Papal Commission and the dis- 
tribution of the neumatic formulas over the text, revised. 

OBSERVATION. After the Council of Trent a great 
desire to abbreviate the melodies manifested itself on 
the part of the S. R. C. and of the Pope. Besides other 
facts which might be adduced in proof of this assertion 
we have the utterances and acts of two men who occupy 
a prominent place in the History of Church Music. Gio- 
vanni Pierluigi da Palestrina was commissioned by Gre- 
gory XIII "to amend the Gradual", and he wrote 2 ) "that 
he deemed it the highest honour to be able to purge 

*) "The question, why the original and ancient name was aban- 
doned and the modern name Gradual substituted, would appear to iind 
its answer in the desire to distinguish the Responsory in the Mass 
from those following the lessons in Matins, and give it a special name 
derived from the position of the precentor" [ad gradusj. Kössing in 
article Graduate in the "Kirchenlexikon". 

2 ) In a letter of Nov. 5 th , 1578 to Duke William in Mantua; see 
K. M. Jahrbuch 1886, p. 39. 


thoroughly the canto fermo from barbarisms and other 
cacophonies." The same idea was carried out practically 
by Felice Anerio, Palestrina's successor in the post of 
"Pontifical composer." An indisputable example of how 
he accomplished this, is given us in Codex 3390 of the 
Vatican Library (Section Ottoboni) bearing the title: 
"Besponsoria in Commune Sanctorum regulato cantu per 
B. D. Felicem Anerium, S. D. N. Musices Compositor em," 
which was originally in the Archives of the Chapel of 
Duke Angelo d'Alltemps. The first Responsory of the 
Common of Apostles is abbreviated in the following 
manner : 

^W==w==N*=wi^w*==i r-irT zi^= L 1 ' — ^± 


Ec-ce e-go mit-to vos sic ■ ut o - ves in me - di-o 


lu-pö - rum di - cit Do - mi-nus etc. 

If this be compared with the abbreviated form con- 
tained in the official Antiphonary and also with the An- 
tiphonary of 1611 or with Manuscripts, it will be seen 
that the Pontifical Commission selected a via media, thus 
considerably facilitating the rendering of the Respon- 
sories without reducing them to the simple Antiphonal 

Another method of singing the Responsories, and 
closely resembling Psalmody, is much favoured in the 
Roman Basilicas and Collegiate Churches. It originated 
in S 1 John Lateran's, and consists in singing the Respon- 
sories according to eight fixed formulas, like the eight 
Psalm-Tones, which were composed probably about the 
beginning of the present century. The above quoted 
Responsory sung according to this method to the formula 
corresponding to the seventh Tone, would run thus: 



Ecce ego mitto vos sicut oves in medio lu-po - rum , di - cit 

Do -mi-nus:* Estöte ergo prudentes sic-ut ser-pen-tes, 


et simplices sic-nt co - lüm-bse. f. Dum lucem ha -be - tis, 

^^^E ^E^^E*JEEEE^£^Ej\ 

credite in hi - cem , ut filii lucis si - tis. Estote. ut 


After the Congress of Arezzo when the "archaeolo- 
gical melismas" became known, weighty authorities ad- 
vocated the addition ad libitum of these simple formulas, 
better suited for modern conditions, to the authentic 
Choral Books. This however was not done, principally 
owing to the consideration that all the Responsories of 
the Breviary should be printed in full, arranged to these 
formulas, which consequently would greatly increase the 
bulk of the Antiphonary. 

These remarks are intended to show that the authority 
to which we owe the Breviarium Bomanum, — "the ab- 
breviated Office", — is inclined even at present to carry 
on the principle of abbreviation, as in the prayers, Les- 
sons, Ceremonies, etc., so also in the Chants. 

If a little care be taken, the Responsories can be 
entoned so as to be in harmony with the preceding Les- 
son, and in order still further to accommodate the Choir, 
the y., and repetition may be recited on the Dominant. 

What has been said about the Antiphons, Respon- 
sories, Hymns, etc., of the Gradual and Antiphonary, 
holds good, of course also for the corresponding melodies 
of the Ritual and Roman Pontifical. 



If Priests, Ecclesiastical Students and Lay Choristers 
sing the Gregorian Chant in its manifold forms at the 
different sacred functions, with attention to the meaning 
and connection of the words, modulating their voices ac- 
cordingly and observing the correct accentuation and 
emphasis in conformity with the rules given in Chap. 45 th r 
then they will sing according to the mind of the Church 
and the wishes of the S. R. C. Then they will be com- 
plying with the injunctions of Cardinal Bona where he 
writes : (De divina Psalrnodia, Cap. XVIL, §. V, 5.) "Nos 
autem generibus musicce jugiter exerceamus, in concordia 
vocum et morum laudes divinas in hoc exsilio decantantes, 
donee mereamur divince musicce consortes fieri, et ad con- 
summatissimos cum Sanctis Angelis Hymnos elevari;" where 

"... Ilia sedes ccelitum 
Semper resultat Imidibus 
Deumque Trinum et Unicum 
Jugi canore prcedicat 
Sedi canentes jungimur 
Ahnce Sionis cemidi." 1 ) 

l ) Third strophe of the Hymn at Lauds in the Dedication of a 


The following Tables are given partly to illustrate 
the history of Plain- Chant notation during the centuries* 
which preceded the invention of printing, and partly to 
display the [graphic] materials from which the Gregorian 
melodies were collected. According to the epoch and 
\ nationality of the transcriber, the manner of writing the 
neumes varied, but once the discovery was made of the 
stave in the 11 th century and that its use rapidly became 
universal, the fixing of the intervals became clear and 
unquestionable. We distinguish Latin from Gothic l ) note- 
forms, simple from complex neumes, as well as signs of 

OBSEKVATION. These Tables are selected from 
the work of P. Jos. Pothier 0. S. B. "Les melodies Gre- 
goriennes". For a comprehensive study of these matters r 
the "friends of Archeology who wish to become acquainted 
with the development and successive phases of Litur- 
gical Chant" (see Brief of Leo XIII. Ap. 26. 1883) are 
recommended to consult and compare the Works and 
Treatises of the following authors: A. W. Ambros; Cha- 
minade; Coussemacker; Fei. Danjou; F. J. Fetis; Prince- 
Abbot Gerbert (Scriptores, and de Cantu et mitsica sacra); 
Hermesdorff; Kienle; P. Utto Kornmüller; P. Louis Lam- 
billotte; Theod. Nisard (nom de plume of Theod. Normand); 
Dom Pothier (Les Melodies Gregoriennes and Liber Gra- 
dualis); Raillard; D r . Hugo Riemann; P. Anselm Schubiger, 
but especially the Paleographie musicale which since 
January 1889 is being brought out by the Benedictine 
Fathers of Solesmes in Facsimile phototype (four numbers 
yearly). In the general Introduction to this work no less 
than seventy authors are enumerated who treat of the 
neume notation. 

P. Ambros Kienle, Choralschule, p. 14: "From the 11 th century 
the linear notation assumed the square form in France and thence- 
spread into other countries. In Germany the neumes being- thickened 
in the lines and heads drifted into the so-called Hob-nail form." 


1. Table. Usual neunies in Latin writing. 

a) Punctum. b) Virga. c) Podatus. d) Clivis. e) Torculus. 

f) Porrectus. 

& & 9. 

10. & 11. 








J </ 






J J 
















g) Scaidicus. 

h) Salicus. 

i) Climacus. 

k) Pes subpunctis. 

1) Climacus 



J J 

A A 



io. & li. 


,' J 

A f 1 - 



12. & IB. 




• kl ,M 




li & 15. 



•S J 

% \ 




2. Table. Usual neumes in Gothic (Hob-nail) writing. 

a) Punctum. b) Virga. c) Podatus. d) Clivis. e) Torcuhis. f) Porrectus. 

8. & 9. 

|\ & 11. 

12. & IB. 

14. & 15. 



^ / 

J J 

J J 

/> i 

fi x 

jl v 






g) Scandicus. h) Salicus. 

i) Climacus. k) Pes subpunctis. 1) Climacus 


. &9. 

10. & 11. 

12. & 13. 


14. & 15. 



J, J 













3. Table. Latin 

a) Strophicus. b) Epiphonus. 

writing of Tone-embellishment. 

c) Cephalicv». d) .4mcms. e) Quilisma. f) Pressus. 

8. £9. 

J >) Ml 



/? /> 


f A 

10. & 11. 

19 nt 





ff prl 

12. & IB. 

1 n w 





% fy 

14. & 15. 

■ aa BBS 

i i 

p p 




4. Table. Gothic (Hob-nail form) of Tone-embellishment. 

a) Strophicus. b) Epiphonus. c) Cephalicus. d) ,4racws. e) Quilisma. f) Pressus. 

8. &9. 

> > » » »» 






10. & 11. 


P W 



f r» 


v A 

12. & 13. 

? *f w 





A frj 

14. & 15. 


t tt m 







11. cent. 

12. & IB. 

14. & 15. 

5. Table. 

Chronological Forms of the clefs, I? and t| signs, 
a) In Latin writing. 
















b) In Gothic writing. 

11. cent. 

12. & IB. 

14. & 15. 
















l ) The Forms of the modern C, F, and Gr clefs are known; very 
often the C, was made from the Gothic F clef of the 15 th century by 

a double perpendicular line drawn right and left thus: ttsfe In the 

modern F clef the line between the two dots fixes the position of 
the F. 

Index alphabeticus 

cantionum et rerum liturgicarum Sacerdotibus et Clericis convenientium. 

Absolutio in officio Matut. p. 165 
Sterne Eex altissime (Hymnus) 194 
Alleluja in Missa Sabbati sancti 192 
Alma Kedemptoris Mater (An- 
tiphona) 149 
Asperges me 176 
Ave Regina (Antiphona) 159 
Ave sanctum Chrisma 189 
Ave sanctum Oleum 189 
Benedicamus in Missa 137 seq. 
Benedicamus in officio divino 157 seq. 
BenedictioHebdomadarii inMa- 

tutino 166 

Benedictio Pontificalis 196 

Blessing of Candles, Ashes, Palms, 
Paschal Candle and Baptismal 
Font 182 seq. 

Books, liturgical, 89 

Canticorum toni 148 

Capitulum in Officio 153 

Confiteor 134 

Credo in unum Deum 117 

Deus in adjutorium 151 

Doinine labia mea 162 

Dominus vobiscum 106 

Ecce lignum crucis 191 

Ego sum (Antiph. ad Bened.) 198 
Epistola 112 

Evangelium 115 

Exercises 58 seq. 

Exposition of the Choral reading. 246 

— of the metrical Hymns 249 

— of the unmetrical Hymns, 
Prefaces, Litanies, etc. 254 

Exsultabunt (Ant. in exsequiis) 198 
Exsultet jam Angelica turba 185 
Flectamus genua 111 

General Instructions to the 

Clergy and Clerical students 218 
Gloria, Intonationes 105 

Gloria, laus et honor 184 

Humiliate capita vestra 111 

Influence of the Text and Pro- 
nunciation on the Note-forms 
and Tone 237 

Ite missa est, Toni 135 seq. 

Jube domne benedicere 166 

Lamentationis Tonus p. 168 

Lectionis Tonus 167 

Libera me Doinine (Respons.) 139 
Litanise de B. M. V. 180 

Litanise de omnibus Sanctis 177 seq. 
Litaniae de Ss. Nomine Jesu 180 
Lumen Christi 184 

Martyrologium 174 

Orationum Tonus ferialis 109 

Orationum Tonus festivus 107 

„ „ simplex ferialis 109 

„ „ in Parasceve 111 

Redemptor 189 

Oremus before the Offertorium 118 
Pange lingua (Hymnus) 194 

Pater noster, Tonus ferialis 132 
Pater noster, Tonus festivus 132 
Pax Domini 133 

Pr^fationum Cantus Ferialis 128 
Pr^fationum Cantus Festivus 120 
Procedamus in pace 183 

ProphetiEe Tonus 181 

Psalmorum Toni feriales 148 

Psalmorum Toni festivi 145 

Regina coeli (Antiphona) 160 

Requiescant in pace 138 

Responsorium breve (in horis 

canonicis) 173 

Sacris solemniis (Hymnus) 194 

Salutis humanse Sator (Hymnus) 194 
Salve Regina (Antiphona) 160 

Si iniquitates (Ant. in exsequiis) 197 
Sit nomen Dni (Ant. in exsequ.) 196 
Te Deum laudamus 170, 197 

Tonus peregrinus 148 

Various liturgical Functions 

with Chant 193 

Yeni Creator Spiritus (Hymnus) 195 

Veni sancte Spiritus (Aritiph.) 195 

Verbum supernum (Hymnus) 194 

Vers. Toni in Officio divino 155 

„ „ in Commemoratione 156 

„ „ in hebdomada sancta 155 

„ „ in Officio Defunct. 155 

Vespere autem Sabbati 192 

Vidi aquam 176 


Translator's Preface to second English edition 
Author's Preface to ninth German edition . 
Chapter 1. Definition of Gregorian Chant 

„ 2. A short history of Plain Chant . 

„ 3. Why we should esteem Plain Chant 
4. Division of the Book . 

page III 






Chapter o. 
















. 13. 


































Chapter 30. 










PART I. Preliminary Notions. 

Names of the notes. ■ — Construction of the scale 
Progression of the sounds of the scale. — Intervals 
Notation. — Clefs .... 
Rhythm. — Pauses .... 

The voice 

Vocalization. — Articulation 
Pronunciation (of Latin). — Accentuation 


PART II. Plain Chant. 

Sectio theoretica. 

The Church Modes or Tones ..... 66 

Names and Classification of the Church Modes. . 70 

Signs of the Tones 73 

Nature and characteristics of the 1 st , 2 nd , 3 d & 4 th Tones. 75 

Nature and characteristics of the 5 th , 6 th , 7 th & 8 th Tones. 78 

Transposition 81 

On the use of the Diesis or Jf in Gregorian Chant . 85 
Sectio practica. 

The liturgical books 89 

The ecclesiastical year and calendar 9ft 

Arrangement of the Missal (Gradual) and Breviary . 99 

The Holy Sacrifice of the Mass. 

Introit. — Kyrie. — Gloria 102 

The Chants for the Prayers 106 

Prom the Epistle to the Preface . . . .112 

The Preface. — Solemn Intonations .... 119 

The Preface. — Ferial Intonations .... 128 

The Pater noster. — Communion .... 131 

Ite Missa est. — Benedicamus Domino . . . 135 

The Divine Office or Canonical Hours. 


The Psalms in Tono duplici et semiduplici 
Ferial Tones for the Psalms; — the Canticles 

Vespers and Compline 

Matins and Lauds 

Prim. Terce. Sext. None 

page 139 
. 145 
. 148 
. 150 
. 162 
. 171 


Chapter 36. 
„ 37. 

„ 38. 

„ 39. 

Special Observances. 

The Asperges and the Litany Chants . . . 176 
Blessing of Candles , Ashes , Palms , Paschal Candle 

and Baptismal Font 182 

Holy Thursday, Good Friday, and Easter Saturday 

ad Missam 187 

Various liturgical functions with chant . . .193 


Chapter 40. Upon Organ accompaniment to Gregorian Chant 

I. General rules 

II. Special rules 

PART III. Further Notions of Plain Chant. 

Chapter 41. 

„ 42. 

„ 43. 

„ 44. 

„ 45. 

„ 46. 

„ 47. 

„ 48. 

„ 49. 

I. General Instructions. 
To the Clergy and Clerical students .... 

To Choir -Masters 

For Organists 

For Choristers 

II. Special Directions for Chanting. 
Influence of the Text and Pronunciation on the Note- 
forms and Tone 

Psalms. Choral reading 

The metrical Hymns 

The unmetrical Hymns, Prefaces, Litanies, etc. 

The variable Mass Chants, Antiphons, Responsories,etc. 

Appendix with Tables of Neumes 





i 4, 




























last line, for worschip, read worship. 

line, 18, ' „ distribued, „ distributed. 

„9, „ horse-shoe, „ hob-nail. 

5 th line from foot of page, „ this „ these, 

line, 15, „in use, „ useful. 

„14, „ supperadded, „ superadded. 

„ 6, J fall, „ full. 

Foot notes 1 and 2 should be read in inverse order. 

line, 11, for Anthews, read Anthems. 

„4, „Its. „ It- 

„1, „ Propre, „ Proper. 

„• 13, „ Prim, „ Prime. 

„23, „ appartains, „ appertains. 

„10 „ Whoseever, „ Whosoever. 

„ 1,' after by, insert indicating. 

„18, for what, read that. 

„16, after a vowel insert short. 

„6, for postling, read jostling. 

„21, '„ theoreticians „ theorists. 

„ 13, „no, _ „ not. m 

„19, „ appartains, „ appertains. 

„ 3, after Jambic insert either, and after four omit or. 

„ 24, for last read least, and in line 29, for te, read to. 



3 5002 00166 3363 

Haberl, Franz Xaver 

Magister choralis. A theoretical and pra 

MT 860 .Hli D6 1892 

Haberl, Franz Xaver, 1840 

Magister choralis 

* c UBRÄäy! 






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